To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Cerebellar atrophy is characterized by loss of cerebellar tissue, with evidence on brain imaging of enlarged interfolial spaces compared to the foliae. Genetic ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are a heterogeneous group of disorders. We investigated the prevalence in Canada and the diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES) for this group of conditions. Methods: Between 2011 and 2017, WES was performed in 91 participants with cerebellar atrophy as part of one of two national research programs, Finding of Rare Genetic Disease Genes (FORGE) or Enhanced Care for Rare Genetic Diseases in Canada (Care4Rare). Results: A genetic diagnosis was established in 58% of cases (53/91). Pathogenic variants were found in 24 known genes, providing a diagnosis for 46/53 participants (87%), and in four novel genes, accounting for 7/53 cases (13%). 38/91 cases (42%) remained unsolved. The most common diagnoses were channelopathies in 12/53 patients (23%) and mitochondrial disorders in 9/53 (17%). Inheritance was autosomal recessive in the majority of cases. Additional clinical findings provided useful clues to some of the diagnoses. Conclusions: This is the first report on the prevalence of genetic ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy in Canada, and the utility of WES for this group of conditions.
The ice-proximal diamict sediment deposited on the foreset of a grounding zone wedge in Glomar Challenger Basin on the eastern Ross Sea continental shelf yielded a low abundance assemblage of foraminifera at two piston core sites. We found 302 small well-preserved specimens representing 18 species of benthic foraminifera from 825 ml of sediment. Only three poorly preserved specimens of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) were found. Our combined analyses of preservation state, assemblage composition and stable isotopes suggest that the benthic foraminifera may be in situ. This possibility is of interest to palaeoclimatologists who use ice-proximal sediments on the Antarctic continental shelves to radiocarbon date the post-glacial retreat history.
We have obtained deep g, r, and i-band Subaru and ultra-deep 3.6 μm IRAC images of parts of the multiply-wrapped stellar stream around the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 5907. We have fitted the surface brightness measurements of the stream with FSPS stellar population synthesis models to derive the metallicity and age of the brightest parts of the stream. The resulting relatively high metallicity ([Fe/H] = −0.3) is consistent with a major merger scenario but a satellite accretion event cannot be ruled out.
High Speed Sintering (HSS) is a novel additive manufacturing technology which currently uses Nylon 12 as the standard feedstock material. To expand the number of processable materials, the preferred characteristics of polymeric powder as a feedstock powder are presented, appropriate materials identified, parts made, and mechanical properties measured. Two commercially available laser sintering (LS) grade powders previously untested for HSS were selected, DuraForm® HST10 and ALM TPE 210-S. Tensile test specimens were manufactured using each material and mechanical properties analyzed and compared to the manufacturers' specification for LS. Tensile test specimens built using DuraForm® PA show higher tensile strength and elongation at break than LS whereas DuraForm® HST10 shows somewhat reduced tensile strength but slightly increased elongation at break. ALM TPE 210-S shows elongation at break of more than double that of LS demonstrating the capability of HSS to process viscous materials. The results indicate that HSS is capable of processing LS grade polymeric powders and may extend beyond.
In this paper the spore-crystal complex of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) was immobilized by the sol-gel process in a hybrid polymer using as precursors the inorganic tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and the organic Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); in order to combine the advantages of both materials in a hybrid matrix to improve aspects such as the thermal stability, the hydrophobic properties and the porosity. Bti produces different crystals during sporulation phase; these are of protein nature and are used as bio-insecticides. It is important to mention that the insecticide attack is specific to the mosquito larva that causes dengue and black flies. The samples were characterized to ensure viability by performing growth kinetics with fermentations immersed in a flask, this microbial growth was monitored by dry weight, glucose consumption and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to observe the interaction of materials with spore-crystal complex.
We report, for the first time, the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopy for monitoring the optical absorption spectra in aquatic lirium (Eichhornia Crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained a decrease in the amplitude of the bands of the chlorophylls a and b for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 kHz and 1.5 mW/cm2 of power density, and therefore, damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.
Disruption of cell membranes triggers rapid metabolic energy exhaustion, then acute cellular necrosis. Cell membrane dysfunction due to loss of structure integrity is the pathology of tissue death in trauma, muscular dystrophies, reperfusion injuries and common diseases. It is now established that certain PEG-based biocompatible polymers, such as Poloxamer 188, Poloxamine 1107 and PEG, are effective in sealing of injured cell membranes, and thus can prevent acute necrosis if delivered within a few hours after injury. Despite these broad applications of PEG-based polymers for human health, the fundamental mechanisms of how PEG-based polymers interact with cell membranes are still under debate. Here, the effects of PEG-based biocompatible polymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under external stimuli (osmotic stress and oxidative stress) were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) as model cell membranes. Through fluorescence leakage assays and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, we directly observed that the surface-adsorbed P188 can efficiently inhibits the loss of structural integrity of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) under hypo-osmotic stress. We propose that the adsorption of polymers on the membrane surface is responsible for the cell membrane resealing process, while the insertion of the hydrophobic portion of the polymers increases membrane permeability. To elucidate the mechanism by which hydrophilic polymers help restore membrane integrity while their hydrophobic counterparts disrupt it, 1H Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP)-NMR spectroscopy, a newly developed NMR technique that provides unprecedented resolution for differentiating weak surface adsorption versus translocation of polymers to membranes, was employed to sensitively detect polymer-lipid membrane interactions through the modulation of local hydration dynamics in lipid membranes. Our study shows that P188—the most hydrophilic poloxamer known as a membrane sealant—weakly adsorbs onto the membrane surface, yet effectively retards membrane hydration dynamics. Contrarily, P181—the most hydrophobic poloxamer known as a membrane permeabilizer—initially penetrates past lipid headgroups and enhances intrabilayer water diffusivity. Consequently, our results illustrate that the relative hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio of the polymer dictates its functions. These findings gleaned from local hydration dynamics are well supported by our thermodynamics and fluorescence data.
Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) cactus non-gelling (NE) mucilage nanofibers were electrospun with acetic acid solution and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a polymer. The best fiber coverage was achieved with an aqueous 50% acetic acid solution and 9% low molecular weight PVA at a 70:30 PVA:Mucilage volume ratio. Other volume ratios (30:70 and 50:50) produced beads and other deformities. Fibers were formed with an average diameter of 180nm as measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Favorable electrospinning conditions were used to fabricate a 1 cm x 1 cm Ofi nanofiber biomembrane. Heat flow (W/g) versus temperature peaks ranged from 214 – 222°C, which is comparable to endothermic peak ranges observed for crystalline PVA. This could possibly further indicate some form of crystallinity within the Ofi nanofiber membrane. The electrospun process used precursors that were biodegradable, non-toxic, and sustainable to optimize the mucilage nanofiber formation, which will help enhance the potential performance of the Ofi nanofiber biomembrane in filtration and sensory systems.
Increasing concentrations of selenium oxoanions in the environment are placing many animals at risk for reproduction failure and deformities. The understanding of binding mechanisms of selenium oxoanions to iron and manganese based oxide minerals could lead to enhanced understanding of selenium mobility in the environment. In this study, the binding mechanisms of selenium oxoanions, selenite and selenate, to non microwave-assisted and microwave-assisted synthetic Fe3O4, Mn3O4, and MnFe2O4 nanomaterials were investigated through the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy studies revealed the oxidation state of selenite and selenate remains the same after binding occurs to all nanomaterials in pH 2, 4, or 6 environments. The binding modes of selenite and selenate were determined to be bidentate binuclear through use of Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and were independent of nanomaterials, synthetic technique, and pH.
We present the first systematic comparison of the detailed properties, including internal kinematics, chemical abundances, sizes, and dark matter masses, of Milky Way and M 31 dSphs as a part of the SPLASH Survey (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo). Through Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of several hundred individual red giants in a half dozen M 31 galaxies, our results indicate both similarities and differences between the family of dSphs in the Milky Way and M 31. For example, we find that the luminosity-metallicity relation of dSphs in the two hosts is very similar between L = 105 and 107L⊙, the size distribution of M 31 dSphs extends to larger values at the same luminosity compared to Milky Way counterparts (especially at the bright end), and that the dark matter masses of M 31 dSphs are slightly smaller than similar luminosity Milky Way galaxies.
The business meeting of Commission 45 was held on Friday, 7 August. It was attended by the Vice-President of the Commission (who chaired the meeting in the absence of the President) as well as nine other members of the Commission. Attendance was limited, as usual, by the unavoidable occurrence of parallel sessions.
Rapid rotation in red giant stars may be one signature of the past engulfment of a planetary companion. Models of the future tidal interaction of known exoplanet host stars with their planets show that many of these stars will accrete one or more of their planets, and the orbital angular momentum of these accreted planets is sometimes sufficient to spin up the host stars to a level commonly accepted as “rapid rotation” for giant stars. Planets accreted during the red giant phase should leave behind a chemical signature in the form of unusual abundance patterns in the host red giant's atmosphere. Proposed signatures of planet accretion include the enhancement of Li and 12C; both species are generally depleted in giant star atmospheres by convection but could be replenished by planet accretion. Moreover, accreted planets may preferentially enhance the stellar abundance of refractory elements assuming that the refractory nature of these elements leads to their relative enhancements in the planets themselves. Here we present preliminary results of a search for these predicted chemical signatures through high resolution spectroscopic abundance analysis of both rapidly rotating giant stars (i.e., stars with a higher probability of having experienced planet accretion) and normally rotating giant stars. We find that the rapid rotators are enhanced in Li relative to the slow rotators — a result consistent with Li replenishment through planet absorption.
We present high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of the abundances of the α-like element titanium (Ti) and s-process elements yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) for M giant candidates of (a) the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal + tidal tail system, (b) the Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) Star Cloud, and (c) the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS, or Monoceros Stream). All three systems show abundance patterns unlike the Milky Way but typical of dwarf galaxies. The Sgr system abundance patterns resemble those of the Large Magellanic Cloud. GASS/Mon chemically resembles Sgr but is distinct from TriAnd, a result that does not support previous suggestions that TriAnd is a piece of the Monoceros Stream.
This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.
We describe an ongoing, large-scale, photometric and spectroscopic survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) periphery. This survey uses Washington M, T2 + DDO51 photometry to identify distant LMC red giant branch (RGB) star candidates; multi-object spectroscopy is used to confirm the stellar surface gravities of these RGB stars and their association with the LMC (e.g., through radial velocities). The survey now encompasses hundreds of fields ranging from the LMC center with full azimuthal coverage around the LMC and out to 23° from the LMC center. We have confirmed the existence of RGB stars with (the unusual) Magellanic velocities out to the radial limit of this survey coverage. From data in a subsample of these fields, we show that this extended population of stars makes up a diffuse structure enveloping the LMC with a two-dimensional distribution resembling a classical halo with a shallow de Vaucouleurs profile and a broad metallicity spread around a typical mean value of [Fe/H] ~ −1.0.
We present preliminary results from a proper motion study of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Our proper motions show a scatter of ~1.1 mas yr−1 per Carina member star, and we determinate the mean ensemble motion to an accuracy of ~7 mas century−1. While this is a precise measurement of the relative proper motions of Carina members, our correction to an absolute frame is limited by the small number of measured QSOs in the field.
We report the results of a survey of late-type giants aimed at understanding the nature of the disk and nearby halo Galactic stellar populations. We have obtained medium resolution (2–4 Å) spectra for 749 late K and early M giants at mid-latitudes selected from the 2MASS catalog with the FOBOS system at Fan Mountain Observatory. These spectra provide radial velocities (RVs) at the 5 km s−1 level, spectroscopic [Fe/H] good to σ[Fe/H] = 0.25 dex, and information on the relative abundances of Mg/Fe and Na/Fe in these stars. Proper motions from UCAC2 are used to search for local substructures, in particular the leading arm of the Sagittarius tidal streamer passing through the solar neighborhood. The combined proper motions and RVs yield full 6D stellar space motions. We have, by way of kinematics, relatively cleanly isolated the thick disk from the typically high velocity substructures that compose the nearby halo.
We find evidence for substructure in the kinematics and metallicities of local halo stars.