In primate retina, the calcium-binding protein calbindin is expressed by a variety of neurons including cones, bipolar cells, and amacrine cells but it is not known which type(s) of cell express calbindin in the ganglion cell layer. The present study aimed to identify calbindin-positive cell type(s) in the amacrine and ganglion cell layer of human and marmoset retina using immunohistochemical markers for ganglion cells (RBPMS and melanopsin) and cholinergic amacrine (ChAT) cells. Intracellular injections following immunolabeling was used to reveal the morphology of calbindin-positive cells. In human retina, calbindin-labeled cells in the ganglion cell layer were identified as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells, and ON ChAT (starburst amacrine) cells. In marmoset, calbindin immunoreactivity in the ganglion cell layer was absent from ganglion cells but present in ON ChAT cells. In the inner nuclear layer of human retina, calbindin was found in melanopsin-expressing displaced ganglion cells and in at least two populations of amacrine cells including about a quarter of the OFF ChAT cells. In marmoset, a very low proportion of OFF ChAT cells was calbindin-positive. These results suggest that in both species there may be two types of OFF ChAT cells. Consistent with previous studies, the ratio of ON to OFF ChAT cells was about 70 to 30 in human and 30 to 70 in marmoset. Our results show that there are species-related differences between different primates with respect to the expression of calbindin.