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The focus of this chapter about the genito-urinary (GU) system is evidence-based information on how to support health and wellness of the urinary system in general, as well as during recovery from a urologic condition. It is widely accepted that diet, exercise, lifestyle, and behavior affect overall health by impacting organ systems. The impact of wellness medicine on the GU tract is less recognized and less robustly studied, but the principles remain important and impactful. This chapter will discuss: bladder health, including overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, and urinary tract infections; sexual health; prostate health, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer; and kidney health, including kidney stones.
This essay explores how the term ‘girl,’ or 少女 (sonyŏ), in 1930s colonial Korean society simultaneously created and resisted homogeneity. We analyze the different contexts and cultural forces that shaped the term ‘girl’ in colonial Korea in order to illustrate some phases of the relationships that historical girls of colonial Korea had with their nation and state, the nation, that is, to which they thought they belonged at births and the state for which they were mobilized while they were systematically otherized. In our examination, we scrutinize the ways in which the subjectivities of colonial girls were ideologically forged through educational and institutional interventions and cultural interpellation. The first section discusses the concept of the girl in colonial Korea. The second part analyzes the various ideological functions that school textbooks played in gender-specific inculcation of colonial state ideals. We then read the ways The Chosŏn Ilbo (Chosŏn Daily) used the term the ‘girl’ in the 1930s, the period when the conceptual distinction between children and adults was further solidified, and the call on children was gender-specific in public. We finally elucidate the colonial processes of which girls of colonial Korea became part, albeit unknowingly.
We implemented universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was <0.5%, and suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. While our protocol was resource-intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
The aeroelastic phenomenon of limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) is analysed using a projection-based reduced-order model (PROM) and Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the time domain. The proposed approach employs incompressible Navier–Stokes CFD to construct the full-order model flow field. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the snapshot matrix is conducted to extract the POD modes and corresponding temporal coefficients. The POD modes are directly projected to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to reconstruct the flow field efficiently. The methodology is applied to a plunging cylinder and an aerofoil undergoing LCOs. This scheme decreases the computational time while preserving the capability to predict the flow field accurately. The ROM is capable of reducing the computational time by at least 70% while maintaining the discrepancy within 0.1%. The causes of LCOs are also investigated. The scheme can be used to analyse non-linear aeroelastic phenomena in the time domain with reduced computational time.
To evaluate the effect of school-based nutrition interventions (SBNI) involving schoolchildren and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) on child nutrition status and nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.
A systematic review on published school nutrition intervention studies of randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after studies or quasi-experimental designs with control. Nine electronic bibliographic databases were searched. To be included, interventions had to involve changes to the school’s physical and social environments, to the school’s nutrition policies, to teaching curriculum to incorporate nutrition education and/or to partnership with parents/community.
Schools in SSA.
School-aged children and adolescents, aged 5–19 years.
Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. While there are few existing studies of SBNI in SSA, the evidence shows that food supplementation/fortification is very effective in reducing micronutrient deficiencies and can improve nutrition status. Secondly, school nutrition education can improve nutrition knowledge, but this may not necessarily translate into healthy nutrition behaviour, indicating that nutrition knowledge may have little impact without a facilitating environment. Results regarding anthropometry were inconclusive; however, there is evidence for the effectiveness of SBNI in improving cognitive abilities.
There is enough evidence to warrant further trials of SBNI in SSA. Future research should consider investigating the impact of SBNI on anthropometry and nutrition behaviour, focusing on the role of programme intensity and/or duration. To address the high incidence of micronutrient deficiencies in low- and middle-income countries, food supplementation strategies currently available to schoolchildren should be expanded.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (‘EXIT’ procedure) is a well described method for maintaining maternal–fetal circulation in the setting of airway obstruction from compressive neck masses. When ex utero intrapartum treatment to airway is not feasible, ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (‘ECMO’) has been described in fetal cardiopulmonary abnormalities.
This paper presents the case of a massively compressive midline neck teratoma managed with ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, allowing for neonatal survival, with controlled airway management and subsequent resection.
A 34-year-old-female presented with a fetal magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrating a 15 cm compressive midline neck teratoma. Concern for failure of ex utero intrapartum treatment to airway was high. The addition of the ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure provided time for the planned subsequent resection of the mass and tracheostomy.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedures allow for securement of the difficult neonatal airway, while maintaining a supply of oxygenated blood to the newborn. Ex utero intrapartum treatment circulation lasts on average less than 30 minutes. The arrival of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has enabled the survival of neonates with disease processes previously incompatible with life.
1) To characterize mild, moderate, and severe fear of falling in older emergency department (ED) patients for minor injuries, and 2) to assess whether fear of falling could predict falls and returns to the ED within 6 months of the initial ED visit.
This study was part of the Canadian Emergency and Trauma Initiative (CETI) prospective cohort (2011–2016). Patients ages ≥ 65, who were independent in their basic daily activities and who were discharged from the ED after consulting for a minor injury, were included. Fear of falling was measured by the Short Falls Efficacy Scale International (SFES-I) in order to stratify fear of falling as mild (SFES-I = 7-8/28), moderate (SFES-I = 9-13/28), or severe (SFES-I = 14-28/28). Many other physical and psychological characteristics where collected. Research assistants conducted follow-up phone interviews at 3 and 6 months’ post-ED visit, in which patients were asked to report returns to the ED.
A total of 2,899 patients were enrolled and 2,009 had complete data at 6 months. Patients with moderate to severe fear of falling were more likely to be of ages ≥ 75, female, frailer with multiple comorbidities, and decreased mobility. Higher baseline fear of falling increased the risk of falling at 3 and 6 months (odds ratio [OR]-moderate-fear of falling: 1.63, p < 0.05, OR-severe-fear of falling 2.37, p < 0.05). Fear of falling positive predictive values for return to the ED or future falls were 7.7% to 17%.
Although a high fear of falling is associated with increased risk of falling within 6 months of a minor injury in older patients, fear of falling considered alone was not shown to be a strong predictor of return to the ED and future falls.
There are currently limited guidelines on how to design complex assistive technologies (ATs), which necessitates expertise beyond that possessed by designers, occupational therapists (OTs), or end-users. To address this issue, we conducted a series of four participatory workshops to study various configurations of OT-designer-user collaboration in co-designing do-it-yourself (DIY) ATs for an older adult with mobility impairment. We then proposed a specific co-design framework for such OT-designer-user collaboration.
In turning over the Journals of the House of Coms in the time of Oliver Cromwell, it was with very singular satisfaction, that I found, that the first Idea that ever existed in this Country of encouraging the growth of Corn by allowing & encouraging the Importation of it, originated from my Great-Grandfather, as appears from the appointment of the Commee on 6th Octr 1654, & from the report on the 27th Octr. – This gentleman, who is here & in several other parts of the Journal, call'd Captn. Hatsell, was a Country-Gentleman, who liv'd at Saltram, at the House which is now Mr Parker's; His Father, as I have heard, was a considerable Clothier in Devonshire; Captn. Hatsell enter'd eagerly into Cromwell's Party, & in this Parliament which met on the 3d Septr 1654, was one of eleven Knights of the Shire elected from the County of Devon; In the Parliament, which met on 17th Septr. 1656, he was again return'd for the County, & in Richard's Parlt. which met on 27th Jany 1658, he was return'd for Tavistock & Plympton, & on 11th March made his election for Plympton. His name appears very frequently in the Journals, as taking a very active part in all the transactions of that time, But in none, that do him so much honour, as the proposal abovemention'd, & which was the cause of my introducing his name here.
Inclos'd I have sent You some of the Cases I alluded to Yesterday about the Kg’s Adjournmt of the Parlt. From everything I have heard & read, I take the doctrine to be, “That the Adjournment must be the Act of the House” & they may therefore comply or not, as they please, with the King's pleasure; but I am pretty confident there is no instance, but where this pleasure has been ultimately complied with.