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The Bristol Radiocarbon Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (BRAMS) Facility was established at the University of Bristol after the commissioning of our dedicated sample preparation laboratories and the installation and acceptance of the BrisMICADAS AMS in 2016. Routine measurements commenced in mid-2016, once validation was completed for each sample type. Herein, we give an overview of the standard pretreatment methods currently employed in the Facility and the results of radiocarbon (14C) determinations on a wide range of standards, blank materials, and intercomparison samples which have been measured during our extensive pretreatment method validation program and during our routine 14C analyses.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
The purpose of this formative study was to explore current knowledge and attitudes towards physical activity, as well as perceived barriers, facilitators and opportunities for physical activity participation among older adults living in the community. The findings have subsequently informed the design, delivery and recruitment strategies of a local community physical activity intervention programme which forms part of Sport England’s national Get Healthy, Get Active initiative.
There is a growing public health concern regarding the amount of time spent in sedentary and physical activity behaviours within the older adult population.
Between March and June 2016, 34 participants took part in one of six focus groups as part of a descriptive formative study. A homogenous purposive sample of 28 community dwelling white, British older adults (six male), aged 65–90 years (M=78, SD=7 years) participated in one of five focus group sessions. An additional convenience pragmatic sub-sample of six participants (three male), aged 65–90 years (M=75, SD=4 years), recruited from an assisted living retirement home participated in a sixth focus group. Questions for focus groups were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE–PROCEDE model of health programme design, implementation and evaluation. Questions addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers and opportunities for physical activity participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was then conducted with outcomes represented as pen profiles.
Consistent views regarding both the potential physical and psychosocial benefits of physical activity were noted regardless of living status. The themes of, opportunities and awareness for physical activity participation, cost, transport, location and season/weather varied between participants living in an assisted living retirement home and community dwelling older adults. Further comparative research on the physical activity requirements of older adults living in assisted living versus community settings are warranted.
Many studies have identified changes in the brain associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), but few have examined the relationship between genetic determinants of OCD and brain variation.
We present the first genome-wide investigation of overlapping genetic risk for OCD and genetic influences on subcortical brain structures.
Using single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis, we measured genetic overlap between the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCD (1465 participants with OCD, 5557 controls) and recent GWASs of eight subcortical brain volumes (13 171 participants).
We found evidence of significant positive concordance between OCD risk variants and variants associated with greater nucleus accumbens and putamen volumes. When conditioning OCD risk variants on brain volume, variants influencing putamen, amygdala and thalamus volumes were associated with risk for OCD.
These results are consistent with current OCD neurocircuitry models. Further evidence will clarify the relationship between putamen volume and OCD risk, and the roles of the detected variants in this disorder.
Declaration of interest
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by proteinaceous aggregates named Lewy Bodies and Lewy Neurites containing α-synuclein fibrils. The underlying aggregation mechanism of this protein is dominated by a secondary process at mildly acidic pH, as in endosomes and other organelles. This effect manifests as a strong acceleration of the aggregation in the presence of seeds and a weak dependence of the aggregation rate on monomer concentration. The molecular mechanism underlying this process could be nucleation of monomers on fibril surfaces or fibril fragmentation. Here, we aim to distinguish between these mechanisms. The nature of the secondary processes was investigated using differential sedimentation analysis, trap and seed experiments, quartz crystal microbalance experiments and super-resolution microscopy. The results identify secondary nucleation of monomers on the fibril surface as the dominant secondary process leading to rapid generation of new aggregates, while no significant contribution from fragmentation was found. The newly generated oligomeric species quickly elongate to further serve as templates for secondary nucleation and this may have important implications in the spreading of PD.
The 6 GHz transitions of the 2π3/2, J = 5/2 excited state of OH are present in emission in the direction of several OH-emission regions (Rickard et al. 1975; Knowles et al. 1976), and in absorption in compact thermal sources (Gardner and Whiteoak 1975). This has suggested that transitions in the next highest state near 13 GHz (J = 7/2) might also be widely observable. A single detection has already been reported in W3OH by Turner et al. (1970). In this paper we report the observation of narrow-band emission in several other sources.
At the centre of the Parkes 64—m radio telescope a region of diameter 17 m has recently been resurfaced to improve its efficiency at high frequencies. The first measurements using this section have been made at 22 GHz, in observations of both continuum sources and water tfapour masers. For these observations the receiver front-end used a mixer cooled in liquid nitrogen, followed by a 5 GHz cryogenic parametric amplifier as a second stage. The option of switching against an offset horn was available and the total system
noise temperature was ∽ 750 K.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact and efficacy of pulse oximetry screening for CHD in a level-two neonatal unit without on-site access to paediatric echocardiography.
All neonatal unit admissions between 1 September, 2011 and 31 August, 2013 were reviewed to determine the outcomes of newborns identified by pulse oximetry screening. Record linkage with the National Congenital Heart Disease Audit allowed follow-up of newborns with a negative screening result.
There were 11,233 live births during the study period, with 973 neonatal unit admissions unrelated to pulse oximetry screening. From the remaining screening population of 10,260 newborns, 23 were admitted on the basis of a screen-positive result; three of the 23 patients went on to have urgent echocardiograms, and two were found to have critical CHD. In the 21 newborns without critical CHD, an alternative diagnosis was made in 16 cases. Record linkage with the National Congenital Heart Disease Audit indicated that no newborns born in the hospital during the study period received surgery for critical CHD following negative screening. The estimated sensitivity of screening was 100% (95% confidence interval 15.81–100%) and specificity was 99.80% (95% confidence interval 99.69–99.87%), with a false-positive rate of 0.20% (95% confidence interval 0.13–0.31%).
The introduction of pulse oximetry screening to a hospital where paediatric echocardiography services are not available is practical, results in very few referrals to the regional paediatric cardiology centre, and detects cases of CHD that would otherwise go undiagnosed. Record linkage with a national CHD database provides a straightforward method for tracking cases of CHD that may have been missed by screening.
The results of 1959-1960 radar measurements of the distance of the Moon are given. The method of reduction of the data is described The possible effects of lunar topography and errors of other origins are discussed, as well as the effects of different constants such as the radii of the Earth and of the Moon.
To develop a regime of care for patients with head and neck cancers undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with the support of a health advisor (HA) and temporary access to the mouth care product Caphosol™.
Materials and methods
A HA was temporarily employed to assess, monitor and refer patients as appropriate and ensure patients received and utilised supplies of Caphosol™. A retrospective audit was undertaken to provide a gap analysis of current service. The data were used to develop a pro forma for documenting assessments and monitoring lifestyle factors for IMRT patients. Assessments referrals and compliance, plus hospital admissions owing to treatment-related issues, were documented during the baseline audit and the temporary HA service and provision of Caphosol™.
The presence of a HA facilitated 100% compliance with appropriate assessments, referrals and adherence to treatment. The data suggests that the additional provision of Caphosol™ may have reduced levels of mucositis and associated pain.
It is recommended that a HA role be established within radiotherapy departments to facilitate lifestyle assessments, referrals and compliance with positive behaviour changes (e.g., stopping smoking). The use of Caphosol™ as a routine part of mouth care regime for IMRT patients also warrants further investigation.
Babies with CHDs are a particularly vulnerable population with significant mortality in their 1st year. Although most deaths occur in the hospital within the early postoperative period, around one-fifth of postoperative deaths in the 1st year of life may occur after hospital discharge in infants who have undergone apparently successful cardiac surgery.
To systematically review the published literature and identify risk factors for adverse outcomes, specifically deaths and unplanned re-admissions, following hospital discharge after infant surgery for life-threatening CHDs.
A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO electronic databases, supplemented by manual searching of conference abstracts.
A total of 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Almost exclusively, studies were conducted in single US centres and focussed on children with complex single ventricle diagnoses. A wide range of risk factors were evaluated, and those more frequently identified as having a significant association with higher mortality or unplanned re-admission risk were non-Caucasian ethnicity, lower socio-economic status, co-morbid conditions, age at surgery, operative complexity and procedure type, and post-operative feeding difficulties.
Studies investigating risk factors for adverse outcomes post-discharge following diverse congenital heart operations in infants are lacking. Further research is needed to systematically identify higher risk groups, and to develop interventions targeted at supporting the most vulnerable infants within an integrated primary and secondary care pathway.
A study was conducted on a GA(W)-1 wing in order to investigate the effect of testing inverted wings in ground effect at low Reynolds numbers. The wing was tested at a range of ground clearances and Reynolds numbers and results showed that the wing’s performance was dependent on both these parameters. Surface flow-visualisation and numerical simulation results highlighted the existence of a laminar separation bubble on the wing’s suction surface. The results also indicated that both the bubble’s length and the onset of separation were sensitive to ground clearance and Reynolds number. Attempts were made to minimise the wing’s Reynolds number dependency by using transition strips on the suction surface. The transition strip results highlighted the influence that a laminar separation bubble has on the overall performance of the wing and how its presence alters the force enhancement and reduction mechanisms on an inverted wing in ground effect.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia and heterotaxy are rare but not mutually exclusive disorders, which result from cilia dysfunction. Heterotaxy occurs in at least 12.1% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients, but the prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia within the heterotaxy population is unknown. We designed and distributed a web-based survey to members of an international heterotaxy organisation to determine the prevalence of respiratory features that are common in primary ciliary dyskinesia and that might suggest the possibility of primary ciliary dyskinesia. A total of 49 members (25%) responded, and 37% of the respondents have features suggesting the possibility of primary ciliary dyskinesia, defined as (1) the presence of at least two chronic respiratory symptoms, or (2) bronchiectasis or history of respiratory pathogens suggesting primary ciliary dyskinesia. Of the respondents, four completed comprehensive, in-person evaluations, with definitive primary ciliary dyskinesia confirmed in one individual, and probable primary ciliary dyskinesia identified in two others. The high prevalence of respiratory features compatible with primary ciliary dyskinesia in this heterotaxy population suggests that a subset of heterotaxy patients have dysfunction of respiratory, as well as embryonic nodal cilia. To better assess the possibility of primary ciliary dyskinesia, heterotaxy patients with chronic oto-sino-respiratory symptoms should be referred for a primary ciliary dyskinesia evaluation.
An experimental study incorporating the use of the Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique was performed to measure the density field of a rectangular supersonic jet. This technique is easier to set up than conventional schlieren since the optical alignment involving the various mirrors, lenses and knife-edge is replaced by a background pattern and a single digital camera. The acquired images which contain information of density gradients in the flow are solved as a Poisson equation and further processed using deconvolution and tomographic algorithms to generate a 3D domain which contains information about the actual density. 2D slices can then be extracted to quantitatively visualise the density along any required planes. The results from supersonic axisymmetric jets are used for validation of the code; these show excellent agreement with pre-validated CFD data. The results for a rectangular supersonic jet are then obtained. These show good agreement with the CFD data, in terms of shock-cell spacing and overall structure of the jet. The technique has proved useful for investigating axis-switching, a phenomenon generally associated with non-axisymmetric jets.
On Tuesday July 4, 1854, it was hot and humid at Harmony Grove; “the heat of the weather…was extreme.” But this did not deter a large audience from gathering at this location in Framingham, Massachusetts. This was the spot upon which many of them had assembled, under the organization of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, for the past 8 years. They came by crowded railroad cars (from Boston, Milford, and Worcester), and by horse and carriage from many other surrounding towns, eager to hear speeches by prominent members of the antislavery community. William Lloyd Garrison was not the first to speak, but his actions were the most memorable. Addressing the audience, Garrison held up, and systematically burned, three documents: a copy of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act; a copy of a recent court decision that ordered the free state of Massachusetts to use its facilities to assist in the capture of fugitive slaves; and a copy of the United States Constitution. This was no mere symbolic act; it conveyed an important part of the Garrisonian argument. Namely, that the Constitution was “a covenant with death, and an agreement with hell.”
In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60 000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23 000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.