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Weak lensing detections and measurements of filaments have been elusive for a long time. The reason is that the low density contrast of filaments generally pushes the weak lensing signal to unobservably low scales. To nevertheless map the dark matter in filaments exquisite data and unusual systems are necessary. SuprimeCam observations of the supercluster system Abell 222/223 provided the required combination of excellent seeing images and a fortuitous alignment of the filament with the line-of-sight. This boosted the lensing signal to a detectable level and led to the first weak lensing mass measurement of a large-scale structure filament. The filament connecting Abell 222 and Abell 223 is now the only one traced by the galaxy distribution, dark matter, and X-ray emission from the hottest phase of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The combination of these data allows us to put the first constraints on the hot gas fraction in filaments.
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
In this chapter, we discuss miniaturized atomic magnetometers, and the technology and applications relevant to this somewhat unusual direction in magnetometer research and development . By “miniaturized,” we mean, in addition to their small size, magnetometers that have associated desirable qualities such as low power consumption, low cost, high reliability, and the potential for mass fabrication. Together with the high sensitivity usually obtained from the use of atoms, these properties result in magnetic sensors that fill a unique application space and may in fact enable new applications for which atomic magnetometers have not before been used.
It is perhaps surprising that atomic magnetometers in general are not more widely used in the world today. The main application areas at present are geophysical surveying and magnetic anomaly detection. Geophysical surveying is important in oil and mineral exploration, archeology, and unexploded ordnance detection and is typically carried out by moving one or more atomic magnetometers over the area to be surveyed. The magnetic “map” generated from this data can show the locations and in some cases the size and shape of magnetic objects or structures buried beneath the surface of the earth. Magnetic anomalies include vehicles, ships, and submarines and are typically detected via magnetic gradiometry. There are, however, only three major companies in North America, employing perhaps a few hundred people, that manufacture and sell atomic magnetometers. This effort represents a rather small fraction of the worldwide yearly market for magnetic sensors, which was estimated in 2005 to be about §1 billion . Commercial atomic magnetometers are described in Chapter 20.
The career and reputation of James Ramsay MacDonald are generally influenced by his actions in 1931, and yet, as Donald Cameron Watt has stated, it is ‘not really possible to blackguard him for 1931 without having to cast aspersions on his extraordinary achievements earlier on’. This article examines some of these ‘extraordinary’ achievements by considering the role of MacDonald himself in the formation and leading of the 1924 minority Labour Government. It considers the difficulty he experienced in creating a Cabinet from colleagues whom he generally considered to be unsuitable and incapable, and which led him to become both Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary. He faced criticism from many in his party for his failure to implement a measure of socialist reforms, yet given the nature of the domestic problems with which his government was faced, and the tenuous nature of this government, held in place, as it was, by a fractured Liberal Party, this ‘failure’ is scarcely surprising. However, this article maintains that in foreign policy, and in his powerful joint role, MacDonald's reputation in 1924 really can be described as outstanding.
Investigations using a liquid-phase blocking sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in sera from sheep and from cattle are reported, and results compared with those obtained by virus neutralization (VN) tests.
Serum antibody titres in sheep after primary vaccination and in cattle challenged with a natural aerosol after vaccination were similar by ELISA and VN. However, the antibody levels detected in sera of cattle during early infection and of vaccinated cattle after intradermolingual challenge were clearly greater by ELISA than by VN.
The ELISA titres in cattle sera following synthetic peptide vaccination indicated some relationship to protection and were clearly different from those recorded by VN. On the other hand, the antibody levels following conventional vaccination showed that ELISA and VN titres in cattle sera were related to protection. Although there was a good agreement between the ELISA antibody titre and protection for the four vaccines used, by VN the titre which afforded protection varied depending on the vaccine used.
The ELISA was considered therefore to be more reliable than the VN and may prove useful for evaluating the immunological response of animals following infection and following vaccination.
Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease persist in dairy cattle herds in Saudi Arabia despite revaccination at intervals of 4–6 months. Vaccine trials provide data on antibody responses following vaccination. Using this information we developed a mathematical model of the decay of protective antibodies with which we estimated the fraction of susceptible animals at a given time after vaccination. The model describes the data well, suggesting over 95% take with an antibody half-life of 43 days. Farm records provided data on the time course of five outbreaks. We applied a ‘SLIR’ epidemiological model to these data, fitting a single parameter representing disease transmission rate. The analysis provides estimates of the basic reproduction number, R0, which may exceed 70 in some cases. We conclude that the critical intervaccination interval which would provide herd immunity against FMDV is unrealistically short, especially for heterologous challenge. We suggest that it may not be possible to prevent foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks on these farms using currently available vaccines.
Plaque purification of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) type O viruses isolated from cattle in Saudi Arabia showed the presence of mixed serotype infections. Sixteen out of 31 samples collected between 1985 and 1991 also contained Asia 1 virus, a serotype which had previously only been isolated from a single outbreak in that country in 1980. Nucleotide sequences of the Asia 1 component of all these samples revealed little variation and showed that they were closely related to both a Russian lapinized vaccine virus strain (Asia 1/Tadzhikistan/64), and to a field isolate from Turkey (Asia 1/TUR/15/73). Although mixed FMD infections have been observed previously this is a first report of a serotype, considered to be exotic to a country, co-existing undetected for an extended period of time.
In 1986 and 1987 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was isolated from outbreaks of disease in Saudi Arabia and Iran. Selected virus isolates were antigenically distinct from the prototype A22 virus strain (A22/Iraq/64), but were serologically related to each other. However, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that whilst the respective Saudi Arabian structural polypeptides were homogeneous, those from an Iran isolate were distinct. Direct sequencing of part of the P-1D (VP1) gene demonstrated considerable difference in nucleotide homology between the two groups of viruses; the Saudi Arabian viruses were closely related to each other but only distantly related to both the A22 prototype virus strain and the Iranian virus isolate. The latter viruses were only slightly more closely related to each other. Thus there appeared to be at least two distinct FMDV type A variants co-circulating in the Middle East, both of which differed considerably from the classical A22 subtype.
Isotype-specific antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were measured in the sera and upper respiratory tract secretions of vaccinated and susceptible cattle challenged with FMDV by direct contact or by intranasal inoculation. A comparison was made between cattle that eliminated FMDV and those that developed and maintained a persistent infection. Serological and mucosal antibody responses were detected in all animals after challenge. IgA and 1gM were detected before the development of IgG1 and IgG2 responses. 1gM was not detected in vaccinated cattle. Challenge with FMDV elicited a prolonged biphasic secretory antibody response in FMDV ‘carrier’ animals only. The response was detected as FMDVspecific IgA in both mucosal secretions and serum samples, which gained statistical significance (P < 0·05) by 5 weeks after challenge. This observation could represent the basis of a test to differentiate vaccinated and/or recovered convalescent cattle from FMDV ‘carriers’.
Nine isolates from pigs persistently infected with a recent Italian isolate of swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, ITL/9/93, were collected sequentially over 121 days and were characterized antigenically and biochemically. There was an accumulation of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the capsid proteins throughout the carrier state that could be correlated with alterations in antigenicity in virus isolates collected late stage in infection. The aa substitutions detected mainly occurred in VP1 and antigenic changes were detected in late isolates both at antigenic site 1, resulting in loss of binding of Mab 4GO7, and at a closely located site which has not yet been named, recognized by Mab C29. In further experiments groups of pigs were exposed to a range of SVD viruses, but no virus was isolated beyond 16 days post infection (dpi) nor viral RNA detected beyond 42 dpi. Attempts to transfer infection to sentinel pigs introduced some time after initial infection of the original pigs were largely unsuccessful. The carrier state was established in only one out of five experimental infections of pigs with SVD virus and can therefore be considered a rare sequel to infection with SVD virus and is of limited significance in the epidemiology of the disease.
Partial nucleotide sequence at the 3′ end of 1D (VP1-encoding) gene of 90 foot-and-mouth
disease virus type O isolates recovered from field outbreaks in India between 1993–9 were
determined. The sequences were compared with each other and reference viruses. The published
sequences of 15 type O isolates recovered from different parts of Asia and one isolate (O1BFS)
from Europe and one from Egypt (O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72) were also included in the analysis
for comparison. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis the viruses could be grouped into four
distinct genotypes (genotypes I–IV). All 90 isolates from India were genotype-I, as were the
reference isolates from Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Turkey.
Genotype-I isolates were further subdivided into 16 sub-genotypes. The Indian isolates were
found to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and clustered into 12 different genetic groups.
In genotype-I, the nucleotide sequence difference seen between the isolates was 0–11·6%, while
among the Indian isolates it is 0–8·8%. Viruses of similar genetic groups are circulating in
India, Bangladesh and countries of the Middle East. Genotype-II and -III are represented by
isolates from Lebanon (O1/South Lebanon) and Europe (O1-BFS), respectively. Genotype-IV
is formed by isolates from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The present study reveals the
occurrence of viruses belonging to multiple genetic groups over a short period of time and
persistence of single genetic group in the same geographical area over several years. This is
consistent with the endemic nature of the disease in the country.
Partial nucleotide sequence of the capsid polypeptide coding gene
1D (VP1) was determined for
68 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated between 1983 and
occurring in Saudi Arabia. The sequences were compared with previously
14 viruses of Middle Eastern origin (isolated between 1987 and 1991); and
with four vaccine virus strain sequences, three originating from the Middle
one from Europe (O1/BFS 1860/UK/67). The
virus isolates from Saudi Arabia and the Middle East vaccine virus strains
formed a related
genetic group distinct from the European O1virus. Within this
large group 12 distinct genetic sublineages were observed.
Cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus
treated with dexamethasone
to suppress the immune system in an attempt to influence the level of virus
oesophageal–pharyngeal (probang) samples. Twelve carrier cattle were
assigned to one of three
groups: control; 0·1 mg/kg dexamethasone; and 0·5 mg/kg
dexamethasone. Groups 2 and 3
were injected intramuscularly three times weekly for 3 weeks with dexamethasone
33 and 56 post-infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Cattle
developed a leucocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia. The secretory IgA
infection was inhibited following, but not during, dexamethasone treatment
between days 70
and 98 post-infection (P<0·05). FMDV recovery from probang
samples was reduced between
days 40 and 64 post-infection (P<0·05) during treatment
with either 0·1 or 0·5 mg/kg
dexamethasone. Following cessation of dosing with dexamethasone virus recovery
control levels. These observations suggest dexamethasone inhibits shedding
FMDV in a reversible manner which may be related to its immunosuppressive,
anti-inflammatory or physiological actions.
Many of the federal agencies of the United States (e.g. US Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management) are involved in making decisions that alter land-use on a massive scale. Subsequently, these land-use changes may have deleterious or beneficial effects on wildlife habitat and its ability to support wildlife species, both plant and animal. There exists an urgent need to develop methodologies that are capable of predicting the consequences, for wildlife species, of regional land-use changes. This study develops one such methodology to predict the distribution and abundance of animal species at a regional level.
Capped and capless incoherent light annealing of high and low dose silicon
implants into GaAs have been compared with conventional capless furnace
annealing of the same implants. The yield and uniformity of DC
characteristics of selectively implanted depletion mode MESFET's fabricated
on 2-inch wafers annealed by the above three methods have also been
compared. Capped incoherent light annealing was found to give results
comparable to and in some cases better than conventional furnace annealing
both in terms of activation of the implants and also device performance.
The food and water requirements of adults of the blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wied.), singly or in groups of ten, were recorded under laboratory conditions from the intake of water and of sucrose and bovine serum albumin plus liver extract, either in solution or in dry form. Water intake by both male and female flies is negligible when sucrose solution is available. When fed sucrose females live 18–19 days as opposed to 4–5 days on water alone. Intake of sucrose solution increases in both male and female flies when protein is also available. Protein is ingested from the day of emergence by both sexes of the blowfly. A peak of protein intake occurs early in each ovarian cycle of the female. The amount of protein feeding by females remains the same and appears independent of the sucrose concentration; carbohydrate uptake is inversely related to that of protein. In males protein intake declines steadily after an earlier lower peak. Knowledge of the dietary requirements of the blowfly, related to nutritional and reproductive demands, has allowed recognition of a series of behavioural phases in adult life.
Concealment has proved one of the most inscrutable aspects of the land market following the English Reformation. It has received only passing reference in standard works on the period, and the gravity of the problem has never been fully appraised by historians, even though the discovery and disposal of concealed property exercised administrators and speculators alike more than any other aspect of the land market for much of the reign of Elizabeth, and consequently left an abundance of documentation.
Competitiveness of laboratory-reared Lucilia cuprina (Wied.) has been examined under field conditions. The separate release of males and females each marked genetically and with fluorescent dust permitted estimates of dispersal, survival and mating competitiveness for both sexes. The ability of males to seek mates and introduce marker genes into a field population did not appear to be impaired as a result of several years of laboratory colonization. Released females were readily inseminated though suitable conditions did not exist for adequate assessment of their ability to produce offspring.