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This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia duodenalis present in Scottish beef and dairy cattle at different ages, to try to ascertain if cattle could play a role in the spread of zoonotic assemblages of Giardia. A total of 388 fecal samples (128 beef and 253 dairy, seven of unknown breed) were collected from 19 farms in Scotland. Samples were sub-divided by host age, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 7–24 and ⩾25 weeks. DNA was extracted and tested by PCR to detect G. duodenalis DNA. Of the 388 samples, 126 tested positive, giving an overall prevalence of 32.5%, with positive samples being observed in all age groups tested. The prevalence in dairy cattle was 44.7% (113/235), which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the prevalence in beef cattle 10.1% (13/128). Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of assemblage E (77.2%, sequence types E-S1–E-S5), assemblage B (18.2%) and assemblage A (sub-assemblages AI-AII) (4.6%). These data demonstrate that G. duodenalis is found routinely in both dairy and beef cattle throughout Scotland; the presence of assemblages A and B also indicates that cattle may play a role in the spread of potentially zoonotic assemblages of Giardia.
The objective was to assess the effects of inclusion rate and chop length of lucerne silage, when fed in a total mixed ration (TMR), on milk yield, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and digestion in dairy cows. Diets were formulated to contain a 50 : 50 ratio of forage : concentrate (DM basis) and to be isonitrogenous (170 g/kg CP). The forage portion of the offered diets was comprised of maize and lucerne silage in proportions (DM basis) of either 25 : 75 (high Lucerne (HL)) or 75 : 25 (low lucerne (LL)). Lucerne was harvested and conserved as silage at either a long (L) or short (S) chop length. These variables were combined in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to give four treatments (HLL, HLS, LLL, LLS) which were fed in a Latin square design study to Holstein dairy cows in two separate experiments. In total, 16 and 8 multiparous, mid-lactation cows were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. To ensure sufficient silage for both experiments, different cuts of lucerne silage (taken from the same sward) were used for each experiment: first cut for experiment 1 (which was of poorer quality) and second cut for experiment 2. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition where measured in both experiments, and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance were assessed using four cows in experiment 2. In experiment 1, cows fed LL had increased DMI (+3.2 kg/day), compared with those fed HL. In contrast, there was no difference in DMI due to lucerne silage inclusion rate in experiment 2. A reduction in milk yield was observed with the HL treatment in both experiment 1 and 2 (−3.0 and −2.9 kg/day, respectively). The HL diet had reduced digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) (−3% and −4%, respectively), and also reduced the efficiency of intake N conversion into milk N (−4%). The S chop length increased total tract digestibility of DM and OM (both +4%), regardless of inclusion rate. Inclusion of lucerne silage at 25% of forage DM increased milk yield relative to 75% inclusion, but a S chop length partially mitigated adverse effects of HL on DMI and milk yield in experiment 1 and on DM digestibility in experiment 2.
Severe feather-pecking (SFP) persists as a highly prevalent and detrimental behavioural problem in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) worldwide. The present experiment investigated the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, a consequence of SFP, in groups of free-range, ISA Brown laying hens. Single feathers were placed on the floor of the home pens. Feathers were sourced from seven different birds. A total of 50 birds in six pens with extensive plumage damage were compared with birds in six control pens with little plumage damage at 41 to 43 weeks of age (n=12 pens, 600 hens). Birds in pens with extensive plumage damage ingested more feathers (F=8.1, DF=1, 8, P=0.02), and also showed shorter latencies to peck at (χ2=54.5, DF=1, P<0.001), and ingest feathers (χ2=55.6, DF=1, P<0.001). Birds ingested feathers from a bird in the free-range facility, in which the testing took place, more quickly than from a bird housed in a separate cage facility (χ2 = 39.0, DF=6, P<0.001). A second experiment investigated the predictive relationship between feather-eating and plumage damage. Feathers were presented to 16 pens of 50 pullets prior to the development of plumage damage, at 15 weeks of age, and then to the same hens after plumage damage had become prominent, at 40 weeks of age. Birds had a higher probability of ingesting feathers (F=142.0, DF=1, 231, P<0.001), pecked feathers more times (F=11.24, DF=1, 239, P<0.001), and also pecked (χ2 = 127.3, DF=1, P<0.001) and ingested (χ2=189.3, DF=1, P<0.001) the feathers more quickly at 40 than 15 weeks of age. There was a trend for an interaction, where birds pecked feathers from the rump more times than feathers from the back at 40 weeks of age (F=3.46, DF=1, 237, P=0.06). However, a lack of variability in plumage damage between pens in this experiment precluded investigation of the predictive relationship. The results from the present study confirm the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, and suggest that birds may prefer feathers from particular body areas and from particular hens. Future experiments should focus on elucidating whether feather-eating may act as a predictor of SFP.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn–SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved DDGS. Results demonstrate that the negative effects of heat damage of SBM or DDGS may be ameliorated if the reduced concentration and digestibility of amino acids in heat-damaged SBM or DDGS is taken into account in diet formulation. Further research is needed to improve the prediction of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in heat-processed ingredients used in practical diet formulations.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
Our goal was to investigate auditory and speech perception abilities of children with and without reading disability (RD) and associations between auditory, speech perception, reading, and spelling skills. Participants were 9-year-old, Finnish-speaking children with RD (N = 30) and typically reading children (N = 30). Results showed significant group differences between the groups in phoneme duration discrimination but not in perception of amplitude modulation and rise time. Correlations among rise time discrimination, phoneme duration, and spelling accuracy were found for children with RD. Those children with poor rise time discrimination were also poor in phoneme duration discrimination and in spelling. Results suggest that auditory processing abilities could, at least in some children, affect speech perception skills, which in turn would lead to phonological processing deficits and dyslexia.
A survey of ABO blood groups, secretor status and smoking habits among 389 students and staff of a school in which there was an outbreak of meningococcal disease found no difference in the distribution of the ABO blood groups but a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors (37·6%) in the population examined compared with that reported for previous surveys of the neighbouring population in Glasgow (26·2%) (P < 0·0005). There was also a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors among carriers of meningococci (47%) compared with non-carriers (32%). Increased carriage of meningococci among non-secretors might contribute to the increased susceptibility of individuals with this genetic characteristic to meningococcal disease observed in previous studies. Although passive exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with meningococcal disease, there was no association between passive smoking and carriage. There was, however, a significant association between active smoking and carriage.
In a recent survey of trimethoprim resistance. 357 Gram-negative aerobic organisms were isolated from healthy volunteers from rural and urban populations in South Africa. Trimethoprim resistance did not transfer to an Escherichia coli J62–2 recipient strain by conjugation in a liquid mating in 161 (45·1%) of the isolates. These isolates which did not transfer their resistance were probed with intragenic oligonucleotide probes for the types Ia. Ib. IIIa. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X and XII dihydrofolate reductase genes. Contrary to all previous data, the most prevalent dihydrofolate reductase gene in this group of non-transferable isolates which hybridized, was the type VII (38%) followed by the type Ia (25%). Ib (12%). V (1·7%) and VIII (1·2%). None of the strains hybridized to the types IIIa. VI. XI. X and the XII dihydrofolate reductase probes. Southern blots of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from selective isolates revealed that the type VII dihydrofolate reductase genes were located on the chromosome and were associated with the integrase gene of Tn21. However, the type Ib and V dihydrofolate reductase genes were all found on plasmids which could not be mobilized. The type Ia dihydrofolate reductase genes were found on both non-transferable plasmids and on the chromosome. The nature of the genetic structures associated with a dihydrofolate reductase gene strongly affects the means of spread of the gene in a population.
This article documents and interprets the Spanish trade in American cotton which developed between the 1740s and 1790s. Following an analysis of the historiography concerning the trade, it provides data on the quantities imported, the state, ginned or unginned, in which it was imported, its origins in the American empire, the shipping arrangements made for its transport, the charges for its freight and the prices which were paid for it in Spain. It shows the growth of the trade to be related to growing demand for raw cotton during the early stages of Catalan industrialization, the meeting of which was facilitated by the reforms introduced in the Hispanic colonial system.
The nature of the dispersion of a clay platelet in a resin composite will play an important role in the process of enhancement of the physical properties of that material. This paper describes studies of ultrasonically and mechanically mixed dispersion of various clays in methyl methacrylate (MMA) and reports the effects of organic surface modification on the rheology, suppression of settlement of filled systems, cure characteristics and final mechanical properties.
The effects of Se on thyroid metabolism in a New Zealand population are investigated, including (a) the relationship between Se and thyroid status, and (b) the effect of Se supplementation on thyroid status. The data used come from two cross-sectional studies of Se, I, thyroid hormones and thyroid volume (studies 1 and 4), and three Se intervention studies in which thyroid hormones, Se and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured (studies 2, 3 and 5). There were no significant correlations between Se status and measures of thyroid status after controlling for sex at baseline or after supplementation in any of the studies. When data from study 4 were divided into two groups according to plasma Se, plasma thyroxine (T4) was lower in males with higher plasma Se levels (P=0·009). Se supplementation increased plasma Se and GPx activity, but produced only small changes in plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3):T4 ratio. In study 2, there was a significant reduction in plasma T4 (P=0·0045). In studies 3 and 5 there were small decreases in plasma T4 and a small increase in the T3:T4 ratio, which were not significantly different from placebo groups. Lack of significant associations between plasma Se and thyroid status, and only small changes in T4 suggest that Se status in New Zealand is close to adequate for the optimal function of deiodinases. Adequate plasma Se may be approximately 0·82–0·90 μmol/l, compared with 1·00–1·14 μmol/l for maximal GPx activities.