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Classrooms are dynamic spaces of teaching and learning, where language and culture are intertwined in remarkable ways. The theory of language socialization explores how sociocultural practices in classrooms help to shape language learning and development. This collection is the first of its kind to bring together research on this fascinating concept. It presents ten case studies, based on linguistic and ethnographic research conducted in classrooms located within communities in North America, Europe and India, spanning learners from preschool, to primary and secondary school, to university. Following an introduction that discusses the theory and core concepts of language socialization, the volume is divided into three central themes: socializing values, dispositions, and stances; socializing identities; and language socialization and ideology. Both new and more experienced researchers will appreciate its new insights into how language socialization is carried out across the globe.
The common femoral artery is a continuation of the external iliac artery and is approximately 4 cm long. It begins directly behind the inguinal ligament, midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis.
The profunda femoris artery arises from the lateral aspect of the common femoral artery, towards the femur, approximately 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament. The common femoral artery continues obliquely down the anteromedial aspect of the thigh as the superficial femoral artery.
The superficial femoral artery exits the femoral triangle to enter the subsartorial canal and ends by passing through an opening in the adductor magnus to become the popliteal artery.
In the upper third of the thigh, the femoral vessels are contained within the femoral triangle (Scarpa’s triangle).
The femoral triangle is formed laterally by the medial border of the sartorius muscle, medially by the adductor longus, and superiorly by the inguinal ligament.
In the femoral triangle, the femoral vein lies medial to the femoral artery. The greater saphenous vein drains into the femoral vein about 3–4 cm below the inguinal ligament; further distally, the femoral vein lies posterior to the artery and maintains this relationship in the popliteal fossa. The femoral nerve and its branches are found lateral to the common femoral artery.
In the middle third of the thigh, the femoral artery lies within the adductor canal (Hunter’s canal), an aponeurotic tunnel in the middle third of the thigh that extends from the apex of the femoral triangle to the opening in the adductor magnus.
The adductor canal is bounded by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the vastus medialis laterally, and the adductor longus and magnus posteromedially. A fascial plane between the vastus medialis and adductor longus and magnus covers the canal.
The canal contains the femoral artery and vein, the saphenous nerve which crosses from lateral to medial, and branches of the femoral nerve.
The femoral vein courses from a medial position in the groin to a posterior and then lateral position with respect to the artery as it moves distally towards the knee.
The greater saphenous vein courses medially to lie on the anterior surface of the thigh, before entering the fascia lata and joining the common femoral vein at the sapheno-femoral junction near the femoral triangle.
The following are the major muscles that will be encountered and may be divided during thoracic operations for trauma.
Anterior Chest Wall: Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles
Pectoralis major muscle: It originates from the anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle, the anterior surface of the sternum, and the cartilages of all the true ribs (1–7 ribs). The 5-cm wide tendon inserts into the upper humerus.
Pectoralis minor muscle: It arises from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, near their cartilages, and from the aponeuroses over the intercostal muscles. It inserts into the coracoid process of the scapula.
Lateral Chest Wall: Serratus anterior muscle
Serratus anterior muscle: It originates from the lateral part of the first eight to nine ribs and inserts into the medial aspect of the scapula.
Posterior Chest Wall: Latissimus Dorsi
Latissimus Dorsi muscle: It originates from the spinal processes of the lower thoracic spine and the posterior iliac crest and inserts into the upper portion of the humerus.
The majority of traumatic hemothoraces can be managed successfully with a chest tube placement.
Retained hemothorax is defined as residual pleural blood >300–500 mL after initial thoracostomy tube evacuation.
The gold standard for diagnosing retained hemothorax is a noncontrast CT scan of the chest. A chest X-ray is not reliable in the accurate diagnosis of retained hemothorax.
VATS is usually contraindicated in patients with previous thoracic operations and in patients with respiratory failure or significant contralateral lung injury, such as contusion, atelectasis, or pneumonia, because single-lung ventilation may not be tolerated.
Ideally, VATS should be done within the first 3–5 days. Early VATS (within 72 hours of admission) for evacuation of retained hemothorax reduces hospital length of stay, number of procedures, and cost. VATS is more difficult and less effective if performed more than 7–10 days after the injury, due to clot organization and dense adhesions.
Stationary cross-flow vortex N-factors were calculated over the surface of a yawed circular cone using computationally predicted and experimentally observed wavenumber distributions. Surface heat-flux data were obtained on a
half-angle circular cone to investigate the behaviour of the stationary waves at different angles of attack and Reynolds numbers at Mach 6 under quiet-flow conditions in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. A wavelet analysis was conducted on the experimental surface heat-flux data to construct a spatial mapping of the local largest amplitude wavenumbers of the stationary cross-flow waves, which were between 40 and 80 per circumference. Significant axial and azimuthal variation was observed. The results from the wavelet analysis were used to inform the stability analysis. The computed integration marching directions demonstrated very good agreement with the experimentally observed paths. N-factors were first calculated by integrating the local amplification rate corresponding to the most amplified experimental wavenumbers. The calculations were repeated based on non-dimensional computationally varying wavenumber ratios, which were dimensionalized by the experimental data. The computed N-factors showed good agreement between the two techniques. N-factors were also computed using the computationally predicted most unstable wavenumbers. The results showed decreased agreement with the other two cases, suggesting that this assumption does not properly model the cross-flow transition process.
What are the duties of refugees? Writing in 1970, Michael Walzer described refugees a possessing a peculiar and distinctive ‘kind of freedom’. The refugee, by virtue of being effectively stateless, is released from all the duties associated with citizenship, not least the duty to fight for the state. However, this, Walzer immediately noted, was a poisoned freedom, one that any refugee would gladly exchange for the bonds of citizenship. It was a freedom grounded in uncertainty and insecurity because the refugee’s liberation from duties came with the disappearance of any state duties to the refugee.
Employability assessment was developed to help claims professionals decide total and permanent disability insurance claims, yet it has not been empirically evaluated. This descriptive study sought formative knowledge about employability assessment from claims professionals working in the multibillion-dollar Australian life insurance total and permanent disability market. Claims assessors (n = 53) and technical advisors (n = 51) responded to a nationwide online survey. Participants found employability assessment was cost effective and very useful in deciding claims. Having an objective, realistic, and clear picture of a claimant’s employment prospects was important. Highly rated components of employability assessment included transferable skills analysis; summary of education, training and experience; job match rationale; and labour market analysis with employer contact. Face-to-face claimant interviews were favoured by 56% of participants, particularly when there was legal involvement. Standardised provider training and certification were recommended to improve report quality and withstand scrutiny of the courts. Billing time estimates are higher than extant costs for assessment tasks. More than half (56%) the participants considered rehabilitation counsellors were best qualified to conduct employability assessments. The study findings contribute new knowledge to this emergent field and point to further research into quality and cost of employability assessment, and provider accreditation.
Antimicrobial stewardship improves patient care and reduces antimicrobial resistance, inappropriate use, and adverse outcomes. Despite high-profile mandates for antimicrobial stewardship programs across the healthcare continuum, descriptive data, and recommendations for dedicated resources, including appropriate physician, pharmacist, data analytics, and administrative staffing support, are not robust. This review summarizes the current literature on antimicrobial stewardship staffing and calls for the development of minimum staffing recommendations.
Given the rapid rate of technological innovation and a desire to be proactive in addressing potential ethical challenges that arise in contexts of innovation, engineers must learn to engage in value-sensitive design – design that is responsive to a broad range of values that are implicated in the research, development, and application of technologies. One widely-used tool is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Physical products, as with organisms, have a life cycle, starting with extraction of raw materials, and including refining, transport, manufacturing, use, and finally end-of-life treatment and disposal. LCA is a quantitative modeling framework that can estimate emissions that occur throughout a product’s life cycle, as well as any harmful effects that these emissions have on the environment and/or public health. Importantly, LCA tools allow engineers to evaluate multiple types of environmental and health impacts simultaneously and are not limited to a single endpoint or score. However, LCA is only useful to the extent that its models accurately include the full range of values implicated in the use of a technology, and to the extent that stakeholders, from designers to decisionmakers, understand and are able to communicate these values and how they are assigned. Effective LCA requires good ethical training to understand these values.
Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HABSIs) are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population. Our objectives were to review the epidemiology of HABSIs in our NICU and to examine the applicability of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions to the NICU population.
We performed a retrospective review of all neonates admitted to the 54-bed, level IV NICU at Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital with a HABSI between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2018. Clinical definitions per NICU team and NHSN site-specific definitions used for source identification were compared using the McNemar χ2 test.
We identified 86 HABSIs with an incidence rate of 0.80 per 1,000 patient days. Only 13% of these were CLABSIs. Both CLABSIs and non–catheter-related bloodstream infections occurred primarily in preterm neonates, but the latter were associated with a significantly higher incidence of comorbidities and the need for respiratory support. The NHSN definitions were less likely to identify a source compared to the clinical definitions agreed upon by our NICU treating team (P < .001). Furthermore, 50% of patients without an identified source of infection by NHSN definitions were bacteremic with a mucosal barrier injury organism, likely from gut translocation.
HABSIs occur primarily in premature infants with comorbidities, and CLABSIs account for a small proportion of these infections. With the increasing focus on HABSI prevention, there is a need for better NHSN site-specific definitions for the NICU population to prevent misclassification and direct prevention efforts.
Galliformes are one of the most threatened groups of birds in South-East Asia, with 27% of the species threatened with extinction. Long term population viability and extinction probability studies, at different levels of threat and management, are lacking due to weak life history data. This study aimed to define the long-term viability and extinction risk of two populations of the endangered Green Peafowl Pavo muticus, facing different threat and protection levels, using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis (BPVA), which requires less data than traditional methods. The results showed an increasing trend in the Green Peafowl population in HuaiKhaKhaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (western Thailand), with a high protection level and low disturbance and high probability of assuring persistence for the next 100 years. By contrast, the population in YokDon National Park (south-central Vietnam), with a high habitat disturbance level and significant hunting pressure, is predicted to decline and has a high probability (99%) of extinction by 2097. Also, the BPVA showed minimum viable population (MVP) estimates of 250 and 450 calling males for the HuaiKhaKhaeng and YokDon populations respectively, assuring high probabilities of long-term persistence if the minimum numbers of males are available. The population size of 219 calling males at YokDon during the 2013 survey is lower than the MVP threshold of 450 calling males, which suggests the species has a low probability of long-term persistence in the area. Despite limited life history and population data, BPVA predicted the future of this population under site-specific conditions, and the results could be used to promote better management and population restoration.
Non-native annual brome invasion is a major problem in many ecosystems throughout the semi-arid intermountain west, decreasing production and biodiversity. Herbicides are the most widely used control technique but can have negative effects on co-occurring species. Graminicides, or grass specific herbicides, may be able to control annual bromes without harming forbs and shrubs in restoration settings, but limited studies have addressed this potential. This study focused on evaluating the efficacy of glyphosate and four graminicides to control annual bromes, specifically downy brome and Japanese brome. In a greenhouse, glyphosate and four graminicides (clethodim, sethoxydim, fluazifop-P-butyl, and quizalofop-P-ethyl) were applied at two rates to downy brome plants of different heights (Experiment 1) and to three accessions of downy brome and Japanese brome of one height (Experiment 2). All herbicides reduced downy brome biomass, with most effective control on plants of less than 11 cm and with less than 12 leaves. Overall, quizalofop- P-ethyl and fluazifop P-butyl treatments were most effective, and glyphosate and sethoxydim treatments least effective. Accessions demonstrated variable response to herbicides: the downy brome accession from the undisturbed site was more susceptible to herbicides than downy brome from the disturbed accession and Japanese brome accessions. These results demonstrate the potential for graminicides to target these annual bromes in ecosystems where they are growing intermixed with desired forbs and shrubs.
Building on current research regarding constitutional migration, this article shows how constitutional provisions protecting religious freedom (“subject to public order”) arrived in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, not via colonial British or traditional Islamic sources—both explicitly rejected—but via deliberate constitutional borrowing from “anti-colonial” precursors in Ireland and, especially, India. Drawing on Ernesto Laclau's notion of “empty signifiers,” the article highlights the shifting political circumstances that transformed the meaning of Pakistan's borrowed constitutional provisions. Even as core texts guaranteeing an individual's right to peaceful religious practice were imported, political, legal, and conceptual modulations ensured that specific forms of peaceful religious practice were refashioned as a source of religious provocation and, therein, public disorder. Far from protecting religious freedom, this repurposing of imported constitutional clauses tied to “the politics of public order” underpinned the formal legal restriction of an otherwise explicit right.
On May 14, 1860, New York’s Harper’s Weekly published a double-page lithograph, depicting eleven “Prominent Candidates for the Republican Nomination at Chicago” just a few days before the party convention. The artist arranged the portraits in two groups of five on the right and left, with New York’s William H. Seward occupying the central place. A past senator and governor, Seward was a strong-minded abolitionist and one of the early architects of the Republican party. Many felt that the nomination was his to lose. To Seward’s left were five men in three rows: Missouri’s Edward Bates, New Jersey’s Alexander Pennington, Ohio’s Salmon P. Chase, transplanted Californian John C. Frémont, and Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. Frémont had been the Republican standard-bearer four years before, but this time around he was not seen as a likely choice. Chase, on the other hand, had a substantial reputation as an ardent Radical and a leading Republican. The fairly moderate Lincoln was also a serious possibility, although he lacked the national stature of Seward or Chase.
To detect modest associations of dietary intake with disease risk, observational studies need to be large and control for moderate measurement errors. The reproducibility of dietary intakes of macronutrients, food groups and dietary patterns (vegetarian and Mediterranean) was assessed in adults in the UK Biobank study on up to five occasions using a web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n 211 050), and using short FFQ recorded at baseline (n 502 655) and after 4 years (n 20 346). When the means of two 24-h assessments were used, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for macronutrients varied from 0·63 for alcohol to 0·36 for polyunsaturated fat. The ICC for food groups also varied from 0·68 for fruit to 0·18 for fish. The ICC for the FFQ varied from 0·66 for meat and fruit to 0·48 for bread and cereals. The reproducibility was higher for vegetarian status (κ > 0·80) than for the Mediterranean dietary pattern (ICC = 0·45). Overall, the reproducibility of pairs of 24-h dietary assessments and single FFQ used in the UK Biobank were comparable with results of previous prospective studies using conventional methods. Analyses of diet–disease relationships need to correct for both measurement error and within-person variability in dietary intake in order to reliably assess any such associations with disease in the UK Biobank.
Depth-sensing transmission electron microscopic (TEM) in situ mechanical testing has become widely utilized for understanding deformation in irradiated materials. Until now, compression pillars have primarily been used to study the elastic properties and yield of irradiated materials. In this study, we utilize TEM in situ compression pillars to investigate plastic deformation in two ion-irradiated alloys: Fe–9% Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy and nanocrystalline Cu–24% Ta. We develop an algorithm to automate the extraction of instantaneous pillar dimensions from TEM videos, which we use to calculate true stress–strain curves and strain hardening exponents. True stress–strain curves reveal intermitted plastic flow in all specimen conditions. In the Fe–9% Cr ODS, intermitted plastic flow is linked to strain bursts observed in TEM videos. Low strain hardening or strain softening is observed in all specimen conditions. TEM videos link the strain softening in irradiated Fe–9% Cr ODS to dislocation cross-slip, and in Cu–24% Ta to grain boundary sliding.
We undertook a quality improvement project to address challenges with pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) line maintenance in a setting of low-baseline central-line infection rates. We observed a subsequent reduction in Staphylococcal PAC line infections and a trend toward a reduction in overall PAC infection rates over 1 year.
An analytical model is developed for the lift force produced by unsteady rotating wings; this configuration is a simple representation of a flapping wing. Modelling this is important for the aerodynamic and control-system design for bio-inspired drones. Such efforts have often been limited to being two-dimensional, semi-empirical, sometimes computationally expensive, or quasi-steady. The current model is unsteady and three-dimensional, yet simple to implement, requiring knowledge of only the wing kinematics and geometry. Rotating wings produce a vortex loop consisting of the root vortex, leading-edge vortex, tip vortex and trailing-edge vortex, which grows with time. This is modelled as a tilted planar loop, geometrically specified by the wing size, orientation and motion. By equating the angular impulse of the vortex loop to that of the fluid volume driven by the wing, the circulatory lift force is derived. Potential flow theory gives the fluid-inertial lift. Adding these two contributions yields the total lift formula. The model shows good agreement with a range of experimental and computational cases. Also, a steady-state lift model is developed that compares well with previous work for various angles of attack.
Evidence suggests that sub-optimal maternal nutrition has implications for the developing offspring. We have previously shown that exposure to a low-protein diet during gestation was associated with upregulation of genes associated with cholesterol transport and packaging within the placenta. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of altering maternal dietary linoleic acid (LA; omega-6) to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; omega-6) ratios as well as total fat content on placental expression of genes associated with cholesterol transport. The potential for maternal body mass index (BMI) to be associated with expression of these genes in human placental samples was also evaluated. Placentas were collected from 24 Wistar rats at 20-day gestation (term = 21–22-day gestation) that had been fed one of four diets containing varying fatty acid compositions during pregnancy, and from 62 women at the time of delivery. Expression of 14 placental genes associated with cholesterol packaging and transfer was assessed in rodent and human samples by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In rats, placental mRNA expression of ApoA2, ApoC2, Cubn, Fgg, Mttp and Ttr was significantly elevated (3–30 fold) in animals fed a high LA (36% fat) diet, suggesting increased cholesterol transport across the placenta in this group. In women, maternal BMI was associated with fewer inconsistent alterations in gene expression. In summary, sub-optimal maternal nutrition is associated with alterations in the expression of genes associated with cholesterol transport in a rat model. This may contribute to altered fetal development and potentially programme disease risk in later life. Further investigation of human placenta in response to specific dietary interventions is required.