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Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
This paper aims to synthesise the literature on machine learning (ML) and big data applications for mental health, highlighting current research and applications in practice.
We employed a scoping review methodology to rapidly map the field of ML in mental health. Eight health and information technology research databases were searched for papers covering this domain. Articles were assessed by two reviewers, and data were extracted on the article's mental health application, ML technique, data type, and study results. Articles were then synthesised via narrative review.
Three hundred papers focusing on the application of ML to mental health were identified. Four main application domains emerged in the literature, including: (i) detection and diagnosis; (ii) prognosis, treatment and support; (iii) public health, and; (iv) research and clinical administration. The most common mental health conditions addressed included depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. ML techniques used included support vector machines, decision trees, neural networks, latent Dirichlet allocation, and clustering.
Overall, the application of ML to mental health has demonstrated a range of benefits across the areas of diagnosis, treatment and support, research, and clinical administration. With the majority of studies identified focusing on the detection and diagnosis of mental health conditions, it is evident that there is significant room for the application of ML to other areas of psychology and mental health. The challenges of using ML techniques are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve and advance the field.
To bring together stakeholders in the United Kingdom to establish national priorities for research in single-ventricle heart conditions.
This study comprised two surveys and a workshop. The initial public online survey asked respondents up to three questions they would like answered for research. Responses were classified as unanswered, already answered, or unable to be answered by scientific research. In the follow-up survey, unanswered questions were divided into categories and respondents were asked to rank categories and questions by priority. A stakeholder workshop attended by patients, parents, healthcare professionals, researchers, and charities was held to determine the final list of research priorities.
A total of 128 respondents posed 344 research questions, of which 271 were classified as unanswered, and after removing duplicates, 204 questions remained, which were divided into 20 categories. In the second survey, 56 (49.1%) respondents successfully ranked categories and questions. A total of 39 participants attended the workshop, drawing up a list of 30 research priorities across nine priority categories. The nine priority categories are: Associated co-morbidities; Brain & neurodevelopment; Exercise; Fontan failure; Heart function; Living with a single ventricle heart condition; Management of the well-functioning Fontan circulation; Surgery & perioperative care; and Transplantation, mechanical support & novel therapies.
Through a multi-stage process, we engaged a wide range of interested parties to establish a list of research priorities in single-ventricle heart conditions. This provides a platform for clinicians, researchers, and funders in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to address the most important questions and improve outcomes in these rare but high-impact CHDs.
The WHO encourages national diet survey (NDS) implementation to obtain relevant data to inform policies addressing all forms of malnutrition, which remains a pressing issue throughout Europe. This paper provides an up-to-date review on energy, macro- and selected micronutrient intakes in children across WHO Europe using the latest available NDS intakes. It assesses these against WHO recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) to highlight vulnerable groups and areas of concern. Dietary survey information was gathered by Internet searches, contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics, energy and nutrient intakes were extracted and weighted means calculated and presented by region. Child energy and nutrient intakes were extracted from twenty-one NDS across a third (n 18) of the fifty-three WHO Europe countries. Of these, 38 % (n 6) reported intakes by socio-economic group, but by various indicators. Energy and macronutrients, where boys and older children had higher intakes, were more widely reported than micronutrients. Most countries met under half of the WHO RNI for nutrients reported in their NDS. Micronutrient attainment was higher than macronutrients, but worst in girls and older children. Only a third, mainly Western, WHO European member states provided published data on child nutrient intakes. Gaps in provision mean that dietary inadequacies may go unidentified, preventing evidence-based policy formation. WHO RNI attainment was poor, particularly in girls and older children. Inconsistent age groups, dietary methodologies, nutrient composition databases and under-reporting hinder inter-country comparisons. Future efforts should encourage countries to conduct NDS in a standardised format by age and sociodemographic variables.
A salmonellosis outbreak occurred at a California prison in April and May 2016. In a cohort study of 371 inmates, persons who consumed dishes from the prison kitchen made from ground meat had a higher attack rate (15%) than those who did not (4%) (risk ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.1–10.6). The ground meat product was composed exclusively of beef, mechanically separated chicken (MSC) and textured vegetable protein; eight of eight lots of the product collected from the prison and processing facility were contaminated with Salmonella enterica of eight serotypes and 17 distinct PFGE patterns, including multidrug-resistant S. Infantis. Either the MSC or the beef could have been the source of the particular strains of S. enterica isolated from patients or the product. The microbiological evidence is most consistent with MSC as the source of the high levels of S. enterica in the epidemiologically linked meat product. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the hazard posed by the use of products containing raw mechanically separated poultry in kitchens in institutions.
The WHO encourages the virtual elimination of artificial trans-fatty acids (TFA), which increase CHD risk. Our UK analysis explores whether voluntary reformulation results in differential TFA intakes among socio-economic groups by determining characteristics of high TFA consumers before and after product reformulation.
Food intake was collected by 7d weighed records pre-reformulation and 4d diaries post-reformulation. Sociodemographic characteristics of TFA consumers above the WHO limit, and of the top 10 % of TFA consumers as a percentage food energy, were compared with those of lower TFA consumers. Multivariate logistic regression determined independent socio-economic predictors of being a top 10 % consumer.
UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) for adults aged 19–64 years pre-reformulation (2000/01; N 1724) and post-reformulation (2010/11–2011/12; N 848).
Post-reformulation 2·5 % of adults exceeded the WHO limit, v. 57 % pre-reformulation. In unadjusted analyses, high TFA consumption was associated with lower income, lower education and long-term illness/disability pre- but not post-reformulation. In adjusted pre-reformulation analyses, degree holders were half as likely as those without qualifications to be top 10 % consumers (OR=0·51; 95 % CI 0·28, 0·92). In adjusted post-reformulation analyses, those with higher income were 2·5–3·3 times more likely to be top 10 % consumers than lowest income households. Pre-reformulation, high consumers consumed more foods containing artificial TFA, whereas ruminant TFA were more prominent post-reformulation.
High TFA consumption was associated with socio-economic disadvantage pre-reformulation, but evidence of this is less clear post-reformulation. Voluntary reformulation appeared effective in reducing TFA content in many UK products with mixed effects on dietary inequalities relating to income and education.
The variability of the two T Tauri stars RY and RU Lup has been monitored between 1980 and 1984 at both optical and infrared wavelengths. We present here a preliminary analysis of the data and suggest possible mechanisms for the observed variability.
Deposit formation on turbine hardware in propulsion turbine engines can occur in many arid regions globally. Characterising crystalline deposits on metallic substrates can aid in component resilience and health monitor algorithms during particle ingestion. This study has developed two statistical empirical models for prediction from acquired experimental data for the onset of deposits. The prediction models are for crystalline particulate (Arizona Road Test Dust) deposits on a flat rectangular Hastelloy-X test coupon. Particle impingement angles varied between 20° and 80° in experimental flow temperatures of 1,000–1,100°C. Averaged deposits are methodically quantified through normalised particle deposit tallies per area and percent coverage of the surface using microscopic imaging and image processing programs. Deposit accumulation is a quadratic function of both near-surface coupon temperature and coupon angle.
One of the most conspicuous phenomena in the Arctic Is the fracture of sea ice. It is scarcely possible to travel far without seeing a variety of fracture forms, produced both by natural processes and by human activity.
At strain-rates below about 10−4 s−1, deformation is dominated by creep, but at higher strain-rates fracture is much more important. One of the reasons for this is the very low fracture toughness of ice. The movements of ice in contact with offshore structures often induce strain-rates well beyond the level at which fracture begins, and so offshore structures will often operate in the fracture regime, and it is fracture processes which will determine the design loads. We consider the different modes of repeated fracture that will occur, and classify them into distinct mechanisms of crushing, spalling, and radial and circumferential cracking. Experimental and field observations are plotted on a deformation mode map. A theoretical treatment of radial cracking confirms that very low loads can propagate cracks to long distances; these loads are small by comparison with those calculated from theoretical models that treat ice as a plastically-deforming continuum.
Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, yet there is limited research examining the impact of this on adolescent alcohol use. This study investigates associations between parental supply of alcohol, supply from other sources, and adolescent drinking, adjusting for child, parent, family and peer variables.
A cohort of 1927 adolescents was surveyed annually from 2010 to 2014. Measures include: consumption of whole drinks; binge drinking (>4 standard drinks on any occasion); parental supply of alcohol; supply from other sources; child, parent, family and peer covariates.
After adjustment, adolescents supplied alcohol by parents had higher odds of drinking whole beverages [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33–2.45] than those not supplied by parents. However, parental supply was not associated with bingeing, and those supplied alcohol by parents typically consumed fewer drinks per occasion (incidence rate ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) than adolescents supplied only from other sources. Adolescents obtaining alcohol from non-parental sources had increased odds of drinking whole beverages (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.86–3.45) and bingeing (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.53–4.87).
Parental supply of alcohol to adolescents was associated with increased risk of drinking, but not bingeing. These parentally-supplied children also consumed fewer drinks on a typical drinking occasion. Adolescents supplied alcohol from non-parental sources had greater odds of drinking and bingeing. Further follow-up is necessary to determine whether these patterns continue, and to examine alcohol-related harm trajectories. Parents should be advised that supply of alcohol may increase children's drinking.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
A γ-Ray telescope incorporating an acoustic spark chamber is included in the payload of the OGO-5 spacecraft. The performance of the instrument, which is sensitive to photons of energy 25 to 100 MeV, is discussed.
Observations are limited to a portion of the sky near Cygnus, but the first month's data indicate a variation of intensity showing a maximum in the direction of the galactic plane. If this plane contains a line source of radiation, its intensity is found to be (9 ± 5) × 10−4 photons cm−2 sec−1 rad−1 above an energy of 40 MeV.