To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Otitis externa is a common presentation to secondary care otolaryngology clinics. Despite this, few studies have investigated the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of otitis externa. This study aimed to examine these issues.
Analysis identified 302 swabs taken from 217 patients (100 male, 117 female), between 1 January 2015 and 30 March 2016, at our rapid access otolaryngology clinic.
In total, 315 organisms were isolated; the most frequent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31.1 per cent), followed by candida species (22.9 per cent) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7 per cent). P aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin in 97.7 per cent of cases and to gentamicin in 78.4 per cent.
Compared with studies worldwide, the relative proportions of different organisms causing otitis externa and the patterns of antimicrobial resistance differ. Increasing resistance of P aeruginosa to aminoglycosides demonstrates a changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance that has not been previously reported. Reassuringly, quinolone antibiotics remain highly effective when treating P aeruginosa.
Machine-learning methods may be used to perform many tasks required in the analysis of astronomical data, including: data description and interpretation, pattern recognition, prediction, classification, compression, inference and many more. An intuitive and well-established approach to machine learning is the use of artificial neural networks (NNs), which consist of a group of interconnected nodes, each of which processes information that it receives and then passes this product on to other nodes via weighted connections. In particular, I discuss the first public release of the generic neural network training algorithm, called SkyNet, and demonstrate its application to astronomical problems focusing on its use in the BAMBI package for accelerated Bayesian inference in cosmology, and the identification of gamma-ray bursters. The SkyNet and BAMBI packages, which are fully parallelised using MPI, are available at http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/software/.
It is now common practice to constrain cosmological parameters using supernovae (SNe) catalogues constructed from several different surveys. Before performing such a joint analysis, however, one should check that parameter constraints derived from the individual SNe surveys that make up the catalogue are mutually consistent. We describe a statistically-robust mutual consistency test, which we calibrate using simulations, and apply it to each pairwise combination of the surveys making up, respectively, the UNION2 catalogue and the very recent JLA compilation by Betoule et al. We find no inconsistencies in the latter case, but conclusive evidence for inconsistency between some survey pairs in the UNION2 catalogue.
Understanding the dietary needs of syntopic species is essential for examining species coexistence and resource partitioning. We analysed stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) to estimate the diet of two putative nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Isotopic ratios of δ13C and δ15N were obtained from whole blood of both species of bat and tissues of available plant foods and insect prey over 15 wk at the same locality. We used a concentration-dependent Bayesian mixing model to determine probability distributions of feasible dietary contributions for major potential foods used by each species of bat. Additionally, separate dietary estimates were conducted for males and non-reproductive, pregnant and lactating females to determine differences due to reproductive condition. Insects were an important source of protein for M. redmani, whereas E. bombifrons obtained most of its protein from plants. In both species of bat, lactating females had lower assimilated nitrogen than males, suggesting more reliance on plants for protein. We observed no intraspecific differences in assimilated carbon among reproductive conditions. Flight and lactation are energetically expensive and may explain the increased consumption of high-energy foods, such as fruit or nectar, in lactating female bats. Comparison of isotopes between E. bombifrons and M. redmani illustrate the differential use of food resources by these insular syntopic species of bat.
Deep level acceptor and donor centers are created in III-V materials by energetic ion bombardments. The controlled introduction of these centers by selective area implantation can be used to provide electrical and optical isolation of neighbouring devices. We will contrast the implant isolation characteristics of GaAs and AlGaAs with materials such as InP and InGaAs, and also with the ternary compounds InGaP and AllnP, for which there has previously been little information. In all of these materials the as implanted resistivity is controlled by hopping conduction processes, with p « e×p (T 0.25). Post-implant annealing can be used to achieve resistivities of > 108 Ωcm in initially highly doped material provided the implant doses are correctly chosen. These defect engineered regions may be made many microns deep by using overlapping multiple-energy keV implants or a single MeV implant. In the latter case a nearly flat damage profile can be achieved over depths typical of HBT, SEED or long-wavelength laser epitaxial thicknesses. Examples of these devices which rely on controlled introduction of deep level defects for their operation will be given.
To report a case series of elective removal of bone-anchored hearing aid implants, and reasons for removal.
Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database.
Two tertiary referral centres in the Manchester area: Manchester Royal Infirmary and Salford Royal University Hospital.
A series of 499 adults and children who had undergone a total of 602 implant insertions (1984–2008).
Main outcome measures:
Implant removal rates, and reasons.
Twenty-seven of the 602 implants (4.5 per cent) required removal. Of these, 12 were due to pain (2.0 per cent), seven to persistent infection (1.2 per cent), three to failure of osseointegration (0.5 per cent), three to trauma (0.5 per cent) and two to other reasons (0.4 per cent).
Chronic implant site pain represents the main reason why implants are removed electively, and affects 2 per cent of all implants. This complication has important medico-legal implications and should be discussed when obtaining informed consent for implantation.
To develop a virtual-reality subtotal tonsillectomy simulation for surgical training.
Materials and Methods:
Computer models of a male patient's head and throat, and the surgical instrument, were created. These models were combined with custom-built simulation software. Recently developed tissue simulation technology that exploits recent developments in programmable graphics processing units was used to model tonsillar tissue in a way that allows surgical interaction whilst providing accurate tactile feedback. Current real-time rendering techniques were used to provide realistic visuals. Iterative refinements were made to the simulation, and in particular the tissue simulation, in consultation with relevantly experienced surgeons.
We have used newly developed tissue simulation technology to developed a novel virtual-reality subtotal tonsillectomy simulation for surgical training, the first of its kind.
Early feedback suggests that this simulator can help surgeons to rapidly acquire subtotal tonsillectomy surgical skills in a risk-free and realistic virtual environment.
The development of a self-aligned fabrication process for small emitter contact area (2×4 um2) GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors is described. The process features dielectric-spacer sidewalls, low damage dry etching and selected-area regrowth of p-GaAs(C) on the base contact or n-GaN/AlGaN on the emitter contact. Series resistance effects are still found to influence the device performance.
Low resistance ohmic contacts are difficult to form to p-type GaN and AlGaN due to the unavailability of growth methods for highly p-doped GaN and AlGaN. A p-type carbon-doped GaAs regrowth on p-GaN prior to ohmic metallization has been shown in previous work to improve contact resistance to p-GaN . Applying the regrowth method to the p-base regions of npn structured bipolar transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors have been demonstrated. GaN/AlGaN epilayers were grown with a molecular beam epitaxy system. Highly carbon-doped p-GaAs (1020 cm−3) was regrown on the devices (∼500 Å) in the base contact region by metal organic chemical vapor deposition after emitter mesa etching. Emitter and base mesa structures were formed by Inductively Coupled Plasma etching under low damage conditions with a Cl2/Ar chemistry. SiO2 was used for emitter sidewall formation to reduce leakage current to the emitter, as well as for a mask for GaAs base regrowth. Very high current densities were obtained for common base operation in both device types. The devices were operable at 250 °C.
We review the growth of GaAs on Si by MO-CVD and MBE and discuss the relative merits of these techniques. Major emphasis is placed on the structural and optical characterization of the material that may be indicative of device performance. Typical GaAs layers on Si are free of anti- phase domains and the crystallinity at the surface for a 3-4μm thick deposit approaches that of bulk GaAs, as evidenced by the RBS backscattering yields and Si ion implantation profiles. The major drawbacks of GaAs heteroepitaxy on Si are the very large dislocation densities (106 - 109cm−2), the relatively high unintentional doping concentration (>5 × 1014cm−3 ) that is partly attributable to Si outdiffusion, and the excessive bowing due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. While there are growth and processing techniques to overcome bowing or at least its influence, dislocations and low resistivity are hard to remedy. We discuss novel schemes to reduce dislocations (selective area growth, superlattices and thermal cycling) and efforts to improve the electrical properties (doping, optimization of V/III ratio). A variety of electronic devices and circuits have been fabricated using GaAs/Si. We shall present results on MESFETs, HBTs and HFETs processed in our laboratory and elsewhere. It is quite encouraging that HFETs with a transconductance of 220mS/mm are achievable. However, lasers in room temperature CW operation still have a very limited lifetime. Finally, we discuss the implications of GaAs/Si for a broader area of mismatched heteroepitaxy (InP/Si, InP/GaAs, etc.) and speculate on the future prospects for this new materials technology.
The electrical and photoluminescent properties of vanadium incorporated into GaAs epitaxial layers from a VO(OC2 H5)3 source during organometallic vapor phase epitaxy were examined. The vanadium concentration in the GaAs was controllably varied from 1016 to 1018 atoms cm−3. Deep level transient spectroscopy showed the presence of an electron trap at Ec – 0.15 eV which increased in concentration with vanadium content of the epitaxial layers. A maximum value of 8 × 1015 cm−3 for this trap was obtained. There were no midgap electron traps associated with vanadium. In intentionally Si-doped epitaxial layers, co-doping with vanadium was observed to have no effect in reducing the carrier density when the Si concentration was > 4 × 1016 cm−3. The net carrier concentration profiles resulting from 29 si implantation into GaAs containing 1018 cm−3of total V had sharper tails than for similar implantation into undoped material, indicating the presence of less than 1016 cm−3V-related acceptors. Photoluminescent spectra exhibited the characteristic V+3intracenter emission at 0.65∼0.75 eV. No other deep level photoluminescence was detected. For a V concentration of 1016 cm−3only 2.5 × 1013 cm−3was electrically active. Over the entire V concentration investigated this impurity was predominantly (≥99%) inactive.
Abstract: Several different types of GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures were grown on Si substrates by MOCVD. The defect density in as-grown samples (~108cm−2) was similar to that of GaAs layers grown directly on Si, and the crystalline quality of the material was observed to improve slightly with post-growth annealing at 900°C. We examined the diffusion of both Si and Zn dopants during this type of annealing and found only a small amount of redistribution of both species. Laser annealing of GaAs-on-Si was also examined as a method of reducing the defect density in the material - we observed substantial improvements in surface quality, but no change in sub-surface crystalline quality.
We present a detailed photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation study of GaAs grown directly on InP substrates by MOCVD. Reliable peak assignments are determined. With these peak assignments, we measure strain and strain uniformity, identify impurities, and assess material quality. Most samples exhibit three distinct spectral features. The two highest energy features are the strain split valence band, the third feature is a carbon impurity. The observed splitting is in good agreement with the value predicted from the thermal expansion mismatch.
We have examined the diffusion of Zn from the base of GaAs-AIGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) structures during growth by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The role of Si doping in the emitter-contact, emitter, and collector/subcollector in enhancing the Zn diffusion has been determined by separately doping each layer. For a growth temperature of 675°C Zn shows no observable redistribution up to concentrations of 3x1019 cm−3 without Si doping. The addition of Si to the adjacent AIGaAs emitter and GaAs collector/subcollector layers causes significant diffusion from the base, while Si doping of the GaAs emitter-contact results in even greater Zn redistribution. Silicon counter-doping in the base region retards the Zn diffusion. These results are consistent with a recent model which shows that the n-type surface layer enhances the formation of gallium interstitials which diffuse into the structure and displace the Zn in the base via a kick-out mechanism.
We have investigated the thermal stability of high resistivity regions introduced by ion bombardment of GaAs, AlGaAs, InP and InGaAs. For low doses in which the ion species density is below that of the doping density in the target material, we obtain the usual damage-related compensation in which deep levels created by the bombardment trap the charge carriers. By this method one creates material with resistivities around 108 Ω/□ (n- or p-type GaAs and AlGaAs, p-type InP), around 106 Ω/□ (n-type InP) or around 105 Ω/□ (n-type InGaAs or p-type InGaAs), with a return of the initial resistivity after elevated temperature annealing (∼600°C for GaAs and AIGaAs, ∼500°C for InP and InGaAs). The more interesting case is the use of higher dose implants of species which create chemical deep levels. This occurs for O in n-type AlGaAs where O creates a deep acceptor (Ec-0.49 eV), and Fe in n-type InP and InGaAs, where it is also a deep acceptor. When the concentration of these species exceeds the doping density in the material, the bombarded regions retain their high resistivity even after high temperature annealing (> 1000°C for GaAs and AIGaAs, >850°C for InP and InGaAs). The case of O in GaAs appears to represent a third mechanism; it creates thermally stable material only in the case of Be-doped GaAs, suggesting an ion-pairing reaction.
The use of wet-chemical removal of native oxide in a sealed nitrogen ambient prior to deposition of metal on GaAs is shown to be an effective method of engineering the Schottky barrier height of the metal contacts. Due to its higher metal work function, a barrier height of 0.98 eV for Pt on n-type GaAs is demonstrated. This is considerably higher than the barrier height of conventionally processed TiPtAu contacts (0.78 eV). MESFETs fabricated using PtAu bilayer contacts show reverse currents an order of magnitude lower than TiPtAu contacted companion devices, higher reverse breakdown voltages and much lower gate leakage. Utilizing this technology of oxide removal and the PtAu bilayer contact provides a much simpler method of enhancing the barrier height on n-type GaAs than other techniques such as counter-doping the near-surface or inserting an interfacial layer.
The activation of Si+ and Be+ ions implanted into InGaP, InGaAs or InAlAs grown by GSMBE and OMVPE was investigated as a function of ion dose and annealing temperature. Activation efficiencies close to 100% were obtained in InGaP and InGaAs for Be doses up to ∼1014 cm−2 and annealing temperatures of 700–850°C. Activation of Be was less efficient in InAlAs. By contrast, implanted Si displayed a saturation in active sheet electron densities at 1–3 × 1013 cm−2 and required higher annealing temperatures for optimum activation efficiency. High sheet resistance (≤108 μ/□) regions were created by O+ implantation into n+ InGaP or InAlAs, with hopping conduction dominating carrier transport in the bombarded material. For post-implant annealing temperatures above 750°C, the conductivity was restored to its initial value. No evidence was found for the creation of electrically active oxygen-related deep levels in either material.