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Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is a national study of 1759 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. The study is in its 11th wave of annual data collection, having collected extensive data on topics including birth and early life influences, parental health and well-being, identity, cultural engagement, language use, housing, racism, school engagement and academic achievement, and social and emotional well-being. The current paper reviews a selection of major findings from Footprints in Time relating to the developmental origins of health and disease for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Opportunities for new researchers to conduct further research utilizing the LSIC data set are also presented.
Insomnia treatment using an internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy
for insomnia (CBT-I) program reduces depression symptoms, anxiety
symptoms and suicidal ideation. However, the speed, longevity and
consistency of these effects are unknown.
To test the following: whether the efficacy of online CBT-I was sustained
over 18 months; how rapidly the effects of CBT-I emerged; evidence for
distinct trajectories of change in depressive symptoms; and predictors of
A randomised controlled trial compared the 6-week Sleep Healthy Using the
Internet (SHUTi) CBT-I program to an attention control program. Adults
(N=1149) with clinical insomnia and subclinical
depression symptoms were recruited online from the Australian
Depression, anxiety and insomnia decreased significantly by week 4 of the
intervention period and remained significantly lower relative to control
for >18 months (between-group Cohen's d=0.63, 0.47,
0.55, respectively, at 18 months). Effects on suicidal ideation were only
short term. Two depression trajectories were identified using growth
mixture models: improving (95%) and stable/deteriorating (5%) symptoms.
More severe baseline depression, younger age and limited comfort with the
internet were associated with reduced odds of improvement.
Online CBT-I produced rapid and long-term symptom reduction in people
with subclinical depressive symptoms, although the initial effect on
suicidal ideation was not sustained.
Feedback learning is essential for behavioral development. We investigated feedback learning in relation to behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Children aged 6–13 years diagnosed with TBI (n = 112; 1.7 years post-injury) were compared with children with traumatic control (TC) injury (n = 52). TBI severity was defined as mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mildRF− TBI, n = 24), mild TBI with ⩾1 risk factor for complicated TBI (mildRF+ TBI, n = 51) and moderate/severe TBI (n = 37). The Probabilistic Learning Test was used to measure feedback learning, assessing the effects of inconsistent feedback on learning and generalization of learning from the learning context to novel contexts. The relation between feedback learning and behavioral functioning rated by parents and teachers was explored.
No evidence was found for an effect of TBI on learning from inconsistent feedback, while the moderate/severe TBI group showed impaired generalization of learning from the learning context to novel contexts (p = 0.03, d = −0.51). Furthermore, the mildRF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI groups had higher parent and teacher ratings of internalizing problems (p's ⩽ 0.04, d's ⩾ 0.47) than the TC group, while the moderate/severe TBI group also had higher parent ratings of externalizing problems (p = 0.006, d = 0.58). Importantly, poorer generalization of learning predicted higher parent ratings of externalizing problems in children with TBI (p = 0.03, β = −0.21) and had diagnostic utility for the identification of children with TBI and clinically significant externalizing behavior problems (area under the curve = 0.77, p = 0.001).
Moderate/severe pediatric TBI has a negative impact on generalization of learning, which may contribute to post-injury externalizing problems.
There has been a rapid rise in the prevalence of cases of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST) in both humans and farm animals, and it has been found in pigs, cattle and poultry. It is therefore vital to have a good understanding of how to efficiently detect infected farms. The objective of this project was to determine sample type sensitivity in the detection of Salmonella to detect infected groups of animals on both pig (breeder, grower and finisher sites) and cattle (beef and dairy) farms, using data collected from a study investigating farms that were positive for mST, and to explore any variation between different age groups and management practices. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted to analyse the individual and pooled faecal sample data collected from each epidemiological group on each of the farms. The sensitivity of pooled sampling depended on the prevalence of infection in the group being sampled, with a higher prevalence leading to higher sensitivity. Pooled sampling was found to be more efficient at detecting positive groups of animals than individual sampling, with the probability of a random sample from a group of animals with 5% prevalence testing positive being equal to 15·5% for immature pigs (3·6% for an individual faecal sample, taking into account the sensitivity and infection prevalence), 7·1% for adult pigs (1·2% for individual sampling), 30% for outdoor cattle (2% for individual sampling) and 34% for indoor cattle (1% for individual sampling). The mean prevalence of each epidemiological group was higher in outdoor farms than indoor for both pigs and cattle (mean within-farm prevalence of 29·4% and 38·7% for outdoor pigs and cattle, respectively, compared to 19·8% and 22·1% for indoor pigs and cattle)
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the injuries and distribution of casualties resulting from the crash of Turkish Airlines flight TK 1951 near Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands on 25 of February 2009.
Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study. Based on a review of the hospital records for all casualties of the airplane crash, triage at the scene, time to emergency department, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), mortality, length of hospital stay and surgical procedures were abstracted.
Results: Of the 135 passengers, nine died on-scene. A total of 126 survivors were examined in 15 hospitals; data for all survivors were available for the study. Median time between crash and arrival at an emergency department was 3.5 hours (range 1.25-5.5 hours). Six passengers were uninjured and 66 were admitted to hospital. A total of 305 injuries were recorded. The majority were head and facial injuries (92), spinal injuries (35), and fractures of extremities (38). Eighteen percent of the patients had a spinal injury. The mean ISS was 6.3 (range = 1–57). The ISS score was >15 for 13 patients. Surgical procedures (80) were necessary in 23 patients. There was no in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions: Although the accident was in an urban area, there was a significant delay between the time of the accident and the arrival of the casualties at hospital emergency departments. The Turkish Airlines crash provides extensive information for research into mass-casualty or disaster management, triage, plane crash injuries, and survivability. The “Medical Research Turkish Airlines Crash” (MOTAC) study group currently is investigating several of these issues.
The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human–environmental interactions. Multiproxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability (c. 4000–3370 and c. 2190–1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes (c. 3370–2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP–present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus (Sporormiella) c. 1340–1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.
In 2009, a Boeing 737 crashed near Amsterdam, traumatically injuring 126 people. In trauma patients, some injuries initially escape detection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Delayed Diagnosis of Injury (DDI) and the effects of tertiary survey on the victims of a plane crash.
Data collected included documentations of DDI, tertiary surveys, Injury Severity Scale (ISS) score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, number and type of injuries, and emergency intervention. Clinically significant injuries were separated from non-clinically significant injuries. Comparison was made to a crash in the UK (1989), before advanced trauma life support became practiced widely.
All 126 victims were evaluated in a hospital emergency department; 66 were admitted with a total of 171 clinically significant injuries. Twelve clinically significant DDIs were found in eight patients (12%). In 65%, a tertiary survey was documented. The DDI incidences differed for several risk factors. Eighty-one survivors of the UK crash had a total of 332 injuries. Of those with > 5 injuries, 5% had a DDI, versus 8% of those with ≤ 5 injuries.
The DDI incidence in this study was 7% of the injuries in 12% of the population. A tertiary survey was documented in 65%; ideally this should be 100%. In this study, a high ISS score, head injury, > 5 injuries, and emergency intervention were associated with DDI. The DDI incidence in the current study was lower than in the UK crash.
Can the Internet reach beyond the U. S. college samples predominant in social science research? A sample of 564,502 participants completed a personality questionnaire online. We found that 19% were not from advanced economies; 20% were from non-Western societies; 35% of the Western-society sample were not from the United States; and 66% of the U. S. sample were not in the 18–22 (college) age group.
We present evidence that smiling is positively associated with positive affect in women and negatively associated with negative affect in men. In line with Vigil's model, we propose that, in women, smiling signals warmth (trustworthiness cues), which attracts fewer and more intimate relationships, whereas in men, smiling signals confidence and lack of self-doubt (capacity cues), which attracts numerous, less-intimate relationships.
Magnetic reconnection plays a central role in the interpretation of a wide variety of observed solar, space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasma phenomena. The relatively recent discovery that reconnection is common at thin current sheets in the solar wind opens up a new laboratory for studying this fundamental plasma process and its after-effects. Here we provide a brief overview of some of the new insights on reconnection derived from observations of reconnection exhaust jets in the solar wind.
Animals grazing on land contaminated with cadmium due to pollution such as sewage sludge application and traffic emissions ingest cadmium adhered to plants and in soil. The effects of cadmium on ruminal enzymes have been investigated (Faixová and Faix, 2002) as have the effects on the bacterial and protozoal fractions of rumen fluid (Forsberg, 1978). These studies used a single cadmium salt, usually for ease of solubility, however, differences in toxicity have been found between cadmium salts (Barrouillet et al., 2001). The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of cadmium salts and of differing concentrations of cadmium on fermentation by rumen microbes in-vitro.
Forage pollution by lead has been caused by mining, sewage sludge application, nuclear plants and traffic emissions. Animals grazing on contaminated land have a higher exposure to the toxicity posed by contamination adhered to plants and through soil ingestion. Strojan and Phillips (2002) found a decrease in gas production in the presence of lead although other parameters were not measured. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different lead salts and concentrations on microbial activity of rumen micro-organisms in-vitro.
The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34′50″S, 60°49′48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.
Single and double-label immunofluorescence methods were used to determine the distribution and patterns
of colocalisation of various neuropeptides and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with the catecholamine
synthesising enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DβH) in nerve fibres
within specimens of adult human vas deferens obtained at vasectomy (age range 28 to 83 y). Cholinergic
nerve fibres were immunolabelled with an antiserum to vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Using
the general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) the density of intramural nerve fibres was found to
be similar irrespective of age. Many of these axons, especially in the outer 2 muscle layers were TH and
DbH-immunoreactive (IR) and were thus confirmed as noradrenergic. Fewer such axons were seen in the
inner longitudinal muscle layer. All the noradrenergic nerve fibres also displayed NPY-immunoreactivity
with minor populations containing galanin (GAL) or somatostatin (SOM). Nerve fibres lacking TH and
DbH-IR were immunoreactive for VAChT and were sparsely distributed throughout the 2 outer muscle
layers but more numerous in the inner muscle layer. Nerves lacking TH and DbH were immunoreactive for
NPY and some also contained NOS, VIP or CGRP. These results have been compared with those obtained
previously from specimens of human neonatal and infant vas deferens where, in contrast to the present
results, NOS and VIP were shown to be colocalised with TH in many of the intramuscular nerve fibres. It
thus appears that NOS and VIP cease their coexistence with TH in intramuscular nerve fibres of the human
vas deferens between the pre- and postpubertal states. In addition to the intramuscular nerve fibres a
VAChT-IR subepithelial nerve plexus occurs in the vas deferens and may control the secretory activity of
the lining epithelium. Most of these subepithelial nerve fibres were immunoreactive for NPY and many also
contained VIP while minor populations were immunoreactive for NOS, GAL, SOM or SP although fibres
containing CGRP were not observed. The neuropeptide content of the subepithelial nerve plexus was similar
to that observed in the infant, except for an increased density of VIP-IR nerves, which may reflect greater
activity of the lining epithelial cells in the adult vas deferens.
Triple label immunohistochemistry was used to study the coexistence
of the catecholamine-synthesising
enzymes dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and
including neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP),
substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin
(SOM) and galanin (GAL) as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in
developing pelvic paraganglion cells in a series of human male fetal,
neonatal and infant specimens ranging
in age from 13 wk of gestation to 3 y postnatal. 13–20 wk old
fetal specimens possessed large clusters of
paraganglion cells lying lateral to the urinary bladder and prostate
gland which were intensely DBH-immunoreactive (-IR) but lacked TH,
NOS and the neuropeptides investigated. With increasing fetal age
small clusters of paraganglion cells were observed in the muscle coat
of the urinary bladder. At 23 wk of
gestation occasional paraganglion cells were NOS or NPY-IR while at
26 wk of gestation the majority of
paraganglion cells were TH-IR and a few were SOM or GAL-IR. Some
postnatal paraganglia within the
bladder musculature contained cells which were all VIP, SP or CGRP-IR
while others displayed coexistence
of NOS and NPY, SP and CGRP, or NPY and VIP. The presence of NOS in certain
indicates their capacity to generate nitric oxide (NO). These
results show that human paraganglion cells
develop different phenotypes possibly dependent upon their location
within the bladder wall. A delicate
plexus of branching varicose nerves was observed in the fetal
paraganglia which increased in density with
increasing gestational age. The majority of these nerves were VIP-IR
while others were CGRP, SP, NPY,
NOS or GAL-IR. The presence of nerve terminals adjacent to the
paraganglion cells implies a neural
influence on the functional activity of the paraganglia. Some
paraganglia in the late fetal and early postnatal
specimens contained Timofeew's sensory corpuscles, resembling
pacinian corpuscles in their morphology.
The central nerve fibre of these corpuscles displayed immunoreactivity
for SP, CGRP and NOS, the latter
indicating a possible role for NO in afferent transmission from the
urinary bladder. In addition, a few
corpuscles were penetrated by a noradrenergic nerve fibre
immunoreactive for NPY and TH, which may
have a modulatory role on the sensory receptor.
Heavy coagulum formation in lactic casein manufacture results in
casein concentration, high starter bacteria concentration and low pH on
the base of
the coagulation vessel. No heavy coagulum was formed during slow coagulation
skim milk with glucono-δ-lactone, indicating that
starter bacteria were necessary.
Skim milk preheat treatments severe enough to cause denaturation of the
stable whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin,
also caused a reduction in
heavy coagulum formation, suggesting the heat inactivation of a co-factor
in the process. These results suggest a mechanism for heavy coagulum formation
similar to that for minor sludge formation in cottage cheese manufacture.
bacteria would clump together, probably assisted by a co-factor. These
clumps would generate a region of low pH causing isoelectric precipitation
in and around the clumps. The clumps would then settle forming a layer
on the base
of the coagulation vessel which might become further compressed by gravity.
Double-label immunocytochemistry was used to investigate the
colocalisation of various neuropeptides and the enzymes nitric oxide
synthase (NOS) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in intramural ganglia of
the human male urinary bladder neck and trigone. Postmortem specimens
were obtained from 7 male infants and children ranging in age from 2 mo
to 3 y who had died as a result of cot death or accidental trauma. On
average 60% of the intramural neurons were non-TH-immunoreactive (-IR)
(i.e. presumptive cholinergic) and 40% were TH- and DbβH-IR (i.e.
noradrenergic). Within the non-TH-IR population, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found in 65% of cells, neuropeptide Y (NPY)
in 90%, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in 45%, somatostatin (SOM) in 90%,
and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in 40%. The corresponding
values for the TH-IR neurons were CGRP (54%), NPY (70%), NOS (58%), SOM
(73%) and VIP (40%). All the observed bombesin (BOM)-immunoreactivity
was colocalised with TH while 90% of VIP and almost all the CGRP was
colocalised with NPY. Less than 5% of neurons were immunoreactive for
substance P (SP) or met-enkephalin (m-ENK) and some of these also
contained TH. Varicose nerve fibres were seen in close proximity to
some of the intramural neurons, the majority of such varicosities
showing immunoreactivity to CGRP, VIP or TH. Less common were
pericellular varicosities immunoreactive to NPY, SOM or SP. These
results demonstrate the neurochemical heterogeneity of intramural
neurons in the human bladder neck and provide indirect evidence for the
complexity of the peripheral innervation of the human urinary