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Neurobiological models of stress and stress-related mental illness, including post-traumatic stress disorder, converge on the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). While a surge of research has reported altered structural and functional connectivity between amygdala and the medial PFC following severe stress, few have addressed the underlying neurochemistry.
We combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of amygdala connectivity with in vivo MR-spectroscopy (1H-MRS) measurements of glutamate in 26 survivors from the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 34 control subjects.
Traumatized youths showed altered amygdala–anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) and amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) connectivity. Moreover, the trauma survivors exhibited reduced levels of glutamate in the vmPFC which fits with the previous findings of reduced levels of Glx (glutamate + glutamine) in the aMCC (Ousdal et al., 2017) and together suggest long-term impact of a traumatic experience on glutamatergic pathways. Importantly, local glutamatergic metabolite levels predicted the individual amygdala–aMCC and amygdala–vmPFC functional connectivity, and also mediated the observed group difference in amygdala–aMCC connectivity.
Our findings suggest that traumatic stress may influence amygdala–prefrontal neuronal connectivity through an effect on prefrontal glutamate and its compounds. Understanding the neurochemical underpinning of altered amygdala connectivity after trauma may ultimately lead to the discovery of new pharmacological agents which can prevent or treat stress-related mental illness.
Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system.
Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses. We used reinforcement learning models to infer how traumatic stress affected learning and decision-making. Based on the importance of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) for cognitive control, we also investigated if individual concentrations of Glx (=glutamate + glutamine) in dACC predicted the Pavlovian bias of choice.
Survivors of traumatic stress expressed a greater Pavlovian interference with instrumental action selection and had significantly lower levels of Glx in the dACC. Across subjects, the degree of Pavlovian interference was negatively associated with dACC Glx concentrations.
Experiencing traumatic stress appears to render instrumental decisions less flexible by increasing the susceptibility to Pavlovian influences. An observed association between prefrontal glutamatergic levels and this Pavlovian bias provides novel insight into the neurochemical basis of decision-making, and suggests a mechanism by which traumatic stress can impair flexible instrumental behaviours.
An ionosphere is the ionized part of the upper atmosphere of a planet or a moon, a transition layer between the space environment and the lower atmosphere. At Titan, the ionosphere was first detected by the Voyager 1 radio occultation experiment (Bird et al., 1997). As Titan is located within Saturn's magnetosphere for most of the time with occasional incursions into its magnetosheath (and even rarer incursions into the solar wind), its ionosphere is a key layer in coupling Titan with Saturn's space environment. The question of whether Titan's ionosphere is produced primarily by solar radiation or electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere has been under debate for several decades (e.g., Nagy and Cravens, 1998). This is not surprising, bearing in mind the complex and dynamic nature of both the magnetospheric forcing and of the magnetic field line configuration at Titan (see Chapter 12). For instance, while Titan does not have any significant intrinsic magnetic field, Saturn's magnetic field lines drape around and permeate its ionosphere. The draping changes significantly with the angle between the solar direction and the co-rotating plasma direction, which varies as Titan orbits around Saturn.
The Cassini spacecraft, which arrived at Saturn in July 2004, has explored Titan's ionosphere in detail through many close fly-bys, the first of which took place in October 2004. The resulting rich datasets from many instruments, combined with comprehensive analyses, have revealed the chemically and dynamically most complex ionosphere in the solar system.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
The WAIS (West Antarctic Ice Sheet) Divide deep ice core was recently completed to a total depth of 3405 m, ending 50 m above the bed. Investigation of the visual stratigraphy and grain characteristics indicates that the ice column at the drilling location is undisturbed by any large-scale overturning or discontinuity. The climate record developed from this core is therefore likely to be continuous and robust. Measured grain-growth rates, recrystallization characteristics, and grain-size response at climate transitions fit within current understanding. Significant impurity control on grain size is indicated from correlation analysis between impurity loading and grain size. Bubble-number densities and bubble sizes and shapes are presented through the full extent of the bubbly ice. Where bubble elongation is observed, the direction of elongation is preferentially parallel to the trace of the basal (0001) plane. Preferred crystallographic orientation of grains is present in the shallowest samples measured, and increases with depth, progressing to a vertical-girdle pattern that tightens to a vertical single-maximum fabric. This single-maximum fabric switches into multiple maxima as the grain size increases rapidly in the deepest, warmest ice. A strong dependence of the fabric on the impurity-mediated grain size is apparent in the deepest samples.
Groups of pigs were brought to an abattoir by truck and approximately 25 were killed on each of the next 3 days.
While the pigs were in lairage they were given water but were not fed. After slaughter the caecal contents of all pigs were cultured to detect Salmonella spp. The organism was isolated from 70% of 145 pigs killed after 1 day in lairage, 49% of 143 pigs that had been in lairage for 2 days and 41% of 135 pigs that had been held for 3 days.
A swabbing technique was compared with an excision and maceration technique for bacteriological sampling of pig carcass skin surfaces. Total viable counts at 37 °C obtained by swabbing were 46% of those obtained by maceration. At 21 °C, swabbing gave total viable counts which were 54% of the counts obtained from excision samples. Escherichia coli counts showed wide variation with both sampling methods. Neither method was more efficient than the other in recovering E. coli, although excision sampling gave generally higher counts. Both methods were equally effective at recovering salmonellac from carcass surfaces. There was no significant difference between the methods in recovering particular Salmonella serotypes.
Samples were collected at two abattoirs from four sites on pig carcasses as they were being placed in a chiller. Bacteriological examination showed that no single sampling site could be used to assess the microbiological status of pig carcass surfaces. Sampling from multiple sites on a carcass may be required to assess the degree of contamination by different bacteria. It is suggested that the hygiene of slaughtering and dressing of pig carcasses at an abattoir cannot be assessed on a single visit and that a number of visits are necessary to establish a hygiene pattern.
A longitudinal study of the effect of time spent in lairage on salmonellas in the caecum and on the skin surface of 450 slaughter pigs from a single producer was conducted. Pigs were tested in 6 groups at 2 abattoirs, with one-third of a group being slaughtered after 18 h, one-third after 42 h and one-third after 66 h spent in lairage. The salmonella isolation rate from caeca and carcass surfaces increased significantly with increasing time spent in lairage. Salmonellas were isolated from the caeca of 18·5% of pigs held less than 24 h in lairage, 24·1% of pigs held a further 24 h and 47·7% of pigs held for 66 h in lairage before slaughter. The salmonella isolation rates from carcasses were 9·3%, 12·8% and 27·3% for the same groups. Thirteen salmonella serotypes were isolated from the caecal contents and carcasses over the 6 weeks of the trial. One abattoir had a higher salmonella isolation rate from pigs than the other and this was probably related to lairage management. It appeared that lairage is an important factor in the manipulation of the salmonella contamination of pig carcasses.
We observed several H ii regions in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 using the infrared spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our aim is twofold: first, to examine the neon to sulfur abundance ratio in order to determine how much it may vary and whether or not, it is fairly ‘universal’; second, to discriminate and test the predicted ionizing spectral energy distribution between various stellar atmosphere models by comparing with our derivation of the ratio of fractional ionizations involving neon and sulfur. This work extends our previous similar studies of H ii regions in M83 and M33 to lower metallicities.
Recent advances in ion microprobe instrumentation and techniques have enabled the mapping of C isotope ratios across the whole of a polished plate of a natural diamond from Guaniamo, Venezuela. The resultant map of C isotope variation closely matches the cathodoluminescence image of the growth structure of the diamond and, therefore, indicates an extremely limited scale of diffusion of C atoms sincethetimeof diamond formation. This result is compatible with thelimite d mobility of N atoms shown by theIaAB aggregation stateof thediamond. Inclusions in thediamond aree clogitic, in common with many Guaniamo diamonds with temperatures of formation of around 1200ºC. At such temperature the IaAB aggregation state indicates a mantle residence time on the order of 1 Ga. Such temperatures of formation and mantle residence times are common to many natural diamonds; thus the extremely limited diffusion of C isotopes shown by the mapping indicates that many diamonds will retain the C isotope compositions of their initial formation.
These guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American College of
Critical Care Medicine (for the Society of Critical Care Medicine), and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America contain recommendations for the management of adults and children with, and diagnosis of infections related to, peripheral and nontunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), pulmonary artery catheters, tunneled central catheters, and implantable devices. The guidelines, written for clinicians, contain IDSA evidence-based recommendations for assessment of the quality and strength of the data. Recommendations are presented according to the type of catheter, the infecting organism, and the associated complications.
Intravascular catheter-related infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, aerobic gram-negative bacilli, and Candida albicans most commonly cause catheter-related bloodstream infection. Management of catheter-related infection varies according to the type of catheter involved. After appropriate cultures of blood and catheter samples are done, empirical iv antimicrobial therapy should be initiated on the basis of clinical clues, the severity of the patient's acute illness, underlying disease, and the potential pathogen (s) involved. In most cases of nontunneled CVC-related bacteremia and fungemia, the CVC should be removed.