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Filamentary structures can form within the beam of protons accelerated during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with an ultrathin foil target. Such behaviour is shown to be dependent upon the formation time of quasi-static magnetic field structures throughout the target volume and the extent of the rear surface proton expansion over the same period. This is observed via both numerical and experimental investigations. By controlling the intensity profile of the laser drive, via the use of two temporally separated pulses, both the initial rear surface proton expansion and magnetic field formation time can be varied, resulting in modification to the degree of filamentary structure present within the laser-driven proton beam.
The ideal sampling method and benefit of qualitative versus quantitative culture for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) recovery in hospitalized patient rooms and bathrooms is unknown. Although the use of nylon-flocked swabs improved overall gram-negative organism recovery compared with cellulose sponges, they were similar for CRE recovery. Quantitative culture was inferior and unrevealing beyond the qualitative results.
Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation products have been used to improve the performance of nursery pigs. However, research on the influence of this supplement on health is lacking. This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kg) were individually housed in stainless steel pens with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival, assigned to one of three groups (n=10/treatment), and fed for 18 days: (1) Control, fed a non-medicated starter diet; (2) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 1 kg/metric ton (SGX1) and (3) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 2 kg/metric ton (SGX2). On day 7 pigs were anesthetized for insertion of an i.p. temperature device, and similarly on day 14 for insertion of a jugular catheter. Pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25 µg/kg BW) on day 15. Blood samples were collected at 0.5 h (serum) and 1 h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from −2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS administration at 0 h. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 7, 14 and 18. The supplemented pigs had increased BW and average daily gain before the challenge. In response to LPS, there was a greater increase in i.p. temperature in Control pigs compared with supplemented pigs. In addition, cortisol was reduced in SGX2 pigs while cortisol was elevated in SGX1 pigs at several time points post-challenge. White blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes were decreased in SGX1 and SGX2 compared with Control pigs. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokine response varied by treatment and dose of treatment. Specifically, serum TNF-α was greatest in SGX2, intermediate in Control, and least in SGX1 pigs, while the magnitude and temporal pattern of IFN-γ in SGX2 pigs was delayed and reduced. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were reduced in both SGX treatment groups compared with Control pigs. These data demonstrate that different supplementation feed inclusion rates produced differential responses, and that feeding SynGenX to weaned pigs attenuated the APR to an LPS challenge.
The fourth edition of Gender and Elections offers a systematic, lively, multi-faceted account of the role of gender in the electoral process through the 2016 elections. This timely, yet enduring, volume strikes a balance between highlighting the most important development for women as voters and candidates in the 2016 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways in which gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, presidential and vice-presidential candidacies, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the political involvement of Latinas, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. Without question, Gender and Elections is the most comprehensive, reliable, and trustworthy resource on the role of gender in electoral politics.
The weak thermal emission from the largest minor planets can be detected in the microwave regime by the Very Large Array (VLA). Signal-to-noise ratios are sufficiently high to permit precise measurement of the positions of these objects at all points in their orbits with respect to background extragalactic sources. We are in the process of obtaining observations of astrometric accuracy for minor planets 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, and 10 Hygeia.
Minor planets have historically served as “test particles” in the solar system, and optical observations of these objects have been valuable in the determination of fundamental astronomical constants. In particular, optical observations of minor planets have played an important role in the establishment of the fundamental optical reference frame by permitting the determination of the orientation of the Earth's orbit relative to the stars defining the frame.
Similarly, radio observations of these bodies can play a corresponding role in the establishment of a fundamental radio reference frame. Our observations will provide a direct link between the dynamical and radio reference frames, and provide important information on the relationship between the radio and optical reference frames.
Film musicals are one of the key places where music and film join most clearly. They are the antecedent of modern digital audio-visual culture, where sound and image combine, and film aesthetics and music aesthetics merge into something different and more than the sum of their parts. Sonic excess becomes visual spectacle, both vying for ascendency. The film musical is a site of tension: between innovation and tradition, between sound and image, musical number and narrative, and between professionalism and amateurism. It is the continuous discord and synthesis that these tensions raise that forces the musical to never be in stasis, but rather always in a constant state of transition. It is the extent and form of these transitions that this collection focuses upon.
Although one of the staples of classical Hollywood, the film musical became more intermittent in the post-studio era. Indeed, in the last decades of the twentieth century it had become almost a rarity, the tent-pole musical productions of the 1960s, such as Star! (Robert Wise, 1968) and Hello Dolly! (Gene Kelly, 1969), heralding an era of lower budget caution and ‘independent’ production. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable resurgence in the success of film musicals. This edited collection explores the breadth and diversity of recent film musicals, celebrating their energy and diversity, and addressing the genre traditions and innovations, looking to the essential relationship between film and live entertainment, innovation and conservatism.
While at times the film musical genre might have seemed over, merely a historical curio, in the last couple of decades it has re-emerged with a renewed vigour. Although the ‘classical musical’ of Hollywood's heyday – the big white sets, full orchestral scores, dancing stars and elaborate production numbers – might seem long gone, its modes are still very much alive, and its sibling on the stage (embodied by Broadway and London's West End) remains tremendously successful. The old mantra that the musical is dead has long taken on muted tones and the form's past popularity discussed with diminishing reverence excepting by those who have remained stalwart to the genre. Yet, it has never been proven true.