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Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science is not a formal element of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program, and D&I science activities across the CTSA Consortium are largely unknown.
The CTSA Dissemination, Implementation, and Knowledge Translation Working Group surveyed CTSA leaders to explore D&I science-related activities, barriers, and needed supports, then conducted univariate and qualitative analyses of the data.
Out of 67 CTSA leaders, 55.2% responded. CTSAs reported directly funding D&I programs (54.1%), training (51.4%), and projects (59.5%). Indirect support (e.g., promoted by CTSA without direct funding) for D&I activities was higher – programs (70.3%), training (64.9%), and projects (54.1%). Top barriers included funding (39.4%), limited D&I science faculty (30.3%), and lack of D&I science understanding (27.3%). Respondents (63.4%) noted the importance of D&I training and recommended coordination of D&I activities across CTSAs hubs (33.3%).
These findings should guide CTSA leadership in efforts to raise awareness and advance the role of D&I science in improving population health.
The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
Microscale testing has enjoyed significant developments, with the majority of testing focused on tensile/compression type tests and little focus on shear testing. With the recent advances in macroscale shear testing, we developed a novel shear structure for evaluating shear properties of bulk materials and films at the microscale. The shear response in single-crystal copper oriented along the  direction was found to have a yield strength of ∼180 MPa. Nanocrystalline copper specimens with different orientations showed sensitivity to the film texture with a shear yield strength nearly three times that of single-crystal copper. Shear specimens were fabricated with Cu film–Si substrate interface near the middle of the shear region and compressed to fracture. The shear response showed a mixed behavior of the stiff Si substrate and softer nanocrystalline film and failed in a brittle manner, indicating a response unique to the interface.
To examine whether social media and online behaviours are associated with unhealthy food and beverage consumption in children.
A cross-sectional online survey was used to assess Internet and social media use, including engagement with food and beverage brand content, and frequency of consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between online behaviours, including engagement with food and beverage brand content, and consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages, adjusting for age, sex and socio-economic status.
New South Wales, Australia, in 2014.
Children aged 10–16 years (n 417).
Watching food brand video content on YouTube, purchasing food online and seeing favourite food brands advertised online were significantly associated with higher frequency of consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks after adjustment for age, sex and socio-economic status.
Children who have higher online engagement with food brands and content, particularly through online video, are more likely to consume unhealthy foods and drinks. Our findings highlight the need to include social media in regulations and policies designed to limit children’s exposure to unhealthy food marketing. Social media companies have a greater role to play in protecting children from advertising.
In this work, the deformation mechanisms underlying the room temperature deformation of the pseudomorphic body centered cubic (BCC) Mg phase in Mg/Nb nanolayered composites are studied. Nanolayered composites comprised of 50% volume fraction of Mg and Nb were synthesized using physical vapor deposition with the individual layer thicknesses h of 5, 6.7, and 50 nm. At the lower layer thicknesses of h = 5 and 6.7 nm, Mg has undergone a phase transition from HCP to BCC such that it formed a coherent interface with the adjoining Nb phase. Micropillar compression testing normal and parallel to the interface plane shows that the BCC Mg nanolayered composite is much stronger and can sustain higher strains to failure than the HCP Mg nanolayered composite. A crystal plasticity model incorporating confined layer slip is presented and applied to link the observed anisotropy and hardening in the deformation response to the underlying slip mechanisms.
A series of ice-sheet-model intercomparison exercises have been organized as part of EISMINT. One such set of experiments investigated the implications of thermomechanical coupling on the flow of ice sheets with idealized geometry The results of these experiments are discussed by Payne and others (in press). They indicate that local concentrations of ice flow may develop as a consequence of interactions between ice flow, temperature and viscosity The nature of the intercomparison exercise meant that only a limited number of experiments could be performed by the ten contributing groups. Many of the implications arising from the results could not therefore be investigated. This paper focuses on four. They are the initiation of the patterning, its reversibility the influence of the relationship between ice temperature and viscosity and dependence on numerical time-step and horizontal grid size.
A new digital elevation model of the surface of the Greenland ice sheet and surrounding rock outcrops has been produced from a comprehensive suite of satellite and airborne remote-sensing and cartographic datasets. The surface model has been regridded to a resolution of 5 km, and combined with a new ice-thickness grid derived from ice-penetrating radar data collected in the 1970s and 1990s. A further dataset, the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean, was used to extend the bed elevations to include the continental shelf. The new bed topography was compared with a previous version used for ice-sheet modelling. Near the margins of the ice sheet and, in particular, in the vicinity of small-scale features associated with outlet glaciers and rapid ice motion, significant differences were noted. This was highlighted by a detailed comparison of the bed topography around the northeast Greenland ice stream.
Spatially extensive internal layers have been traced in airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) data collected over Greenland during the late 1990s. By linking internal layers within individual flight-lines at crossover points, it is possible to identify spatially continuous layers that are interpreted as isochronous surfaces. Several of the survey lines pass over the GRIP core site, and this allows us to use the published GRIP age–depth relationship to accurately date these surfaces. Two layers, with ages of 3891 and 6956 years BP, have been traced over a large part of North Greenland. Accurately dated and spatially continuous isochrones are valuable for both assimilation within, and verification of, numerical models. For example, comparison of isochronous surfaces from a numerical simulation with those layers observed in RES data can be used to inform the choice of parameters (e.g. rheology) and climate history used to force a numerical model. To demonstrate the potential of the RES data, two layers for North Greenland were used to determine palaeo-accumulation rates. The inversion from layer depth to accumulation rate requires a three-dimensional velocity field. This velocity field is constructed by combining a two-dimensional balance-velocity field with an assumed vertical structure for the horizontal velocity. The isochronous-layer derived accumulation rates were compared with the Bales and others (2001) rates. A larger east–west gradient was found across the central ice divide for the derived accumulation rate, suggesting a trend in the Holocene accumulation rates for this region. The layers were also compared with isochronous surfaces derived from simulations of a three-dimensional thermodynamic ice-sheet model. Using the isochronous-layer derived accumulation rates to force the model improved the match between modelled and observed layers.
This work attempts to explain the fan-like landform assemblages observed in satellite images of the area covered by the former Scandinavian ice sheet (SIS). These assemblages have been interpreted as evidence of large ice streams within the SIS. If this interpretation is correct, then it calls into doubt current theories on the formation of ice streams. These theories regard soft sediment and topographic troughs as being the key determinants of ice-stream location. Neither can be used to explain the existence of ice streams on the flat, hard-rock area of the Baltic Shield. Initial results from a three-dimensional, thermomechanical ice-sheet model indicate that interactions between ice flow, form and temperature can create patterns similar to those mentioned above. The model uses a realistic, 20 km resolution gridded topography and a simple parameterization of accumulation and ablation. It produces patterns of maximum ice-sheet extent, which are similar to those reconstructed from the area’s glacial geomorphology. Flow in the maximum, equilibrium ice sheet is dominated by wedges of warm, low-viscosity, fast-flowing ice. These are separated by areas of cold, slow-flowing ice. This patterning appears to develop spontaneously as the modelled ice sheet grows.
Vestari-Hagafellsjökull is a surge-type outlet glacier from the Langjökull ice cap, Iceland. Intensive hydrological investigations were carried out during non-surge conditions in the summers of 1999 and 2000, and 14 boreholes were drilled using pressurized hot water over an area 800 m from the margin and approximately 5000 m2 in size, where ice thickness ranged from 60 to 70 m. Initial investigations showed that a large fraction of the boreholes drilled to the bed did not drain and were assumed not to connect to the subglacial drainage system. Subsequently, we investigated the hypothesis that boreholes which remain full may do so as a consequence of a balance between englacial inflow and basal drainage rather than the standard assumption that such boreholes are simply unconnected. In testing this hypothesis, we developed a new technique for measuring water motion within the borehole by monitoring the passage of a saline solution down the borehole’s water column. The technique allows rates of motion to be established, as well as allowing the quantification of net addition and loss of water from the borehole. Observations based on the motion of saline plumes within the boreholes lead us to the conclusion that some boreholes do indeed remain full as a consequence of a balance between englacial inflow and subglacial drainage. The abrupt dilution that occurs at the top of these boreholes suggests inflow from a near-surface englacial water source, while the descent of the saline plumes implies that water is being lost at the base to the subglacial system. The system appears to be driven by excess water head in the boreholes over flotation and implies that the borehole/bedrock interface can be ‘leaky’.
UBV observations, plus a few in R and I, were obtained during the 1984 eclipse of RZ Ophiuchi. Bolometric corrections and temperature calibration, applied to the magnitudes and colours of the stars, were used to derive the ratio of the stellar radii, and a light curve solution was obtained with this parameter fixed. Neither component fills its Roche lobe, but the system may be at a late stage of case C mass transfer.
We present the preliminary results of an 8-month monitoring campaign carried out on 6 AGN during the period December 1991 – July 1992. All but one of our targets showed continuum and/or line variability. The data were obtained using the 2D-Prutti + Cassegrain spectrograph at the CTIO 1.0-m telescope, and reduced following standard procedures. The slit width was 5″ and the nuclear spectra were extracted in a 10″ aperture. The wavelength coverage is 3500–7200Å, with 8Å resolution. The data were flux calibrated using standard stars and then normalized using the [O III] λ5007Å line flux for each object. NGC 6814: our spectra reveal that this object is still in a low state of activity and within the S/N ratio of our data, no variability was observed during this campaign. The stellar population is dominant in the nuclear spectrum and a synthesis using the star cluster library of Bica (1988) indicates a mainly old (∼ 86% of the continuum flux at 5870Å due to a population with age ≥ 10 Gyr), [Z/Z⊙] ≥ 0.3 stellar content, with an intrinsic reddening of E(B–V)=0.20. NGC 3227: using an off-nuclear spectrum corresponding to the two 5″×10″ regions 20.4″ E/W of the nucleus, we obtained also a mainly old (77% at 5870Å with age ≥ 10 Gyr), [Z/Z⊙]=0.3) synthetic stellar population, which contributes ∼ 43% of the nuclear light at 5600Å. The cross correlation of the 4245Å continuum and Hβ light curves results in a 18±3 -day lag. IC 4329A: our data show evidence of variability as a slow and constant increase in both continuum and lines fluxes, but no isolated event was detected. ESO141-G55: the light curves show small variations in the continuum, but no noticeable line variability. Akn 120 and Fairall 9: the data consists of two sets of spectra, separated by ∼ 6 months. Within each set little or no variability was detected, but strong line and continuum variations occurred between them.
Although the sources responsible for the radio emission from the Galaxy are unknown, it may nevertheless be valuable to make a comparison between the magnitude and distribution of the emission observed in our Galaxy and that of other nebulae. Analyses have already been made to relate the total emitted power from nearby nebulae with that from the Galaxy, and by considering the integrated radiation from well-defined clusters attempts were made to extend the comparison to the average emission from fainter nebulae.
NGC 7027 is justifiably THE template spectrum for PNe. Its vast range of emission species – from molecular and neutral to ions with ionization potential > 120eV – its high surface brightness and accessibiliy for northern observatories make it the PN laboratory of choice. However the quality of the spectra from the UV to the IR is mixed, many line fluxes and identifications still remaining unchecked from photographic or image tube spectra. Very deep spectra of NGC 7027 (emission line strengths <10-4 of Hβ) in the 0.65 to 1.05μm region (Baluteau et al. 1995) showed the presence of many faint emission lines. Pequignot & Baluteau (1994) showed that heavy elements from the 4th, 5th and 6th rows of the Periodic Table have much higher abundances than Solar, confirming the synthesis of neutron capture elements in low mass stars and providing new constraints on stellar evolution theory.