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Cahokia is the largest documented urban settlement in the pre-Columbian United States. Archaeological evidence suggests that the city, located near what is now East St. Louis, Illinois, began to rapidly expand starting around AD 1050. At its height, Cahokia extended across 1000 ha and included large plazas, timber palisade walls, and hundreds of monumental earthen mounds. Following several centuries of occupation, the city experienced a period of gradual abandonment from about AD 1200 to 1400. Here, we present geochemical data from a 1500-year-old sediment core from nearby Horseshoe Lake that records watershed impacts associated with the growth and decline of Cahokia. Sedimentary analysis shows a distinctive 24-cm-thick, gray, fine-grained layer formed between AD 1150 and 1220 and characterized by low carbonate δ13C, elevated sorbed metal concentrations, and higher organic matter δ15N. The deposition of this layer is contemporaneous with archaeological evidence of increased agricultural activity, earthen mound construction, and higher populations surrounding the lake. We hypothesize that these human impacts increased soil erosion, producing new sediment sources from deeper soil horizons, and shifted dissolved transport to the lake, producing lower carbonate δ13C values, higher concentrations of lead, copper, potassium, and aluminum, and increased δ15N, likely due to contributions of enriched nitrogen from sewage.
Published studies have shown that methane yield (g CH4/kg dry matter) from sheep is positively correlated with the size (volume and surface area) of the reticulo-rumen (RR) and the weight of its contents. However, the relationship between CH4 yield and RR shape has not been investigated. In this work, shape analysis has been performed on a data set of computerised tomography (CT) scans of the RR from sheep having high and low CH4 yields (n=20 and n=17, respectively). The three-dimensional geometries of the RRs were reconstructed from segmented scan data and split into three anatomical regions. An iterative fitting technique combining radial basis functions and principal component (PC) fitting was used to create a set of consistent landmarks which were then used as variables in a PC analysis to identify shape variation within the data. Significant size differences were detected for regions corresponding to the dorsal and ventral compartments between sheep with high and low CH4 yields. When the analysis was repeated after scaling the geometries to remove the effect of size, there was no significant shape variation correlating with CH4 yield. The results have demonstrated the feasibility of CT-based computational shape determination for studying the morphological characteristics of the RR and indicate that size, but not shape correlates with CH4 yield in sheep.
Treatment for hoarding disorder is typically performed by mental health professionals, potentially limiting access to care in underserved areas.
We aimed to conduct a non-inferiority trial of group peer-facilitated therapy (G-PFT) and group psychologist-led cognitive–behavioural therapy (G-CBT).
We randomised 323 adults with hording disorder 15 weeks of G-PFT or 16 weeks of G-CBT and assessed at baseline, post-treatment and longitudinally (≥3 months post-treatment: mean 14.4 months, range 3–25). Predictors of treatment response were examined.
G-PFT (effect size 1.20) was as effective as G-CBT (effect size 1.21; between-group difference 1.82 points, t = −1.71, d.f. = 245, P = 0.04). More homework completion and ongoing help from family and friends resulted in lower severity scores at longitudinal follow-up (t = 2.79, d.f. = 175, P = 0.006; t = 2.89, d.f. = 175, P = 0.004).
Peer-led groups were as effective as psychologist-led groups, providing a novel treatment avenue for individuals without access to mental health professionals.
Declaration of interest
C.A.M. has received grant funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and travel reimbursement and speakers’ honoraria from the Tourette Association of America (TAA), as well as honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. K.D. receives research support from the NIH and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. R.S.M. receives research support from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Aging, the Hillblom Foundation, Janssen Pharmaceuticals (research grant) and the Alzheimer's Association. R.S.M. has also received travel support from the National Institute of Mental Health for Workshop participation. J.Y.T. receives research support from the NIH, Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and the California Tobacco Related Research Program, and honoraria and travel reimbursement from the NIH for serving as an NIH Study Section reviewer. All other authors report no conflicts of interest.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Icing measurements were carried out in natural winter clouds with an instrumented wind tunnel set up at the summit of Puy de Dome (1 500 m a.s.l.). The microphysical data (liquid water content, droplet spectra) were obtained by using the particle measuring system PMS ASSP 100. The ice density was measured on a rotating cylinder and the ice deposit of the cross-section was photographed on a fixed cylinder. The density measurements ranged from 300 to 900 kg m–3 during the experioment and are in agreement with Macklin’s results (1962). The profile of the ice deposit is comparedto the profile predicted by the model of Lozowski and others (19791, which considers a fixed density.
We propose to improve this model by talking into account the variation of ice density with the angle of impact on the cylinder. This calculation is based on Macklin’s results and on the determination of the local impact speed by using the result of Langrature, air speed, liquid wter content, and, especially, the droplet distribution. The improvement is not sufficiemuir and Blodgett (1960). The variation o fice density with the angle depends on various parameters: pressure, tempen to explain some observed profiles; this may be attributed to the fact that the model is not time-dependent.
In several experiments carried out in France, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, and Spain, icing clouds were penetrated at different heights by instrumented research aircraft. This paper describes the range and the frequencies of occurrence of the relevant icing parameters computed on the cloud scale and for different cloud types. Comparisons between micro-physical parameters and meteorolagical radar signatures show the limitations of these radars when used as a means of locating icing clouds.
We used MERLIN to observe RT Vir at 22 GHz at six epochs during 10 weeks. The water maser emission comes from a thick expanding shell with an elliptical velocity field. MERLIN has a velocity resolution of 0.1 km s−1 and milli-arcsecond angular resolution, revealing details within the individual maser clouds, typically 12 mas in diameter spanning 15 velocity channels. The brightest peak doubles in intensity to 800 Jy/beam. Features at velocities close to the stellar velocity show the largest proper motions of ∼ 3 mas away from the centre of emission. Some features are seen near the outer limits to the maser shell at early epochs only, but new masers appear close to the inner rim. The variability of individual maser features is not a simple function of the stellar luminosity.
We determine the age of 7 stars in the Ursa Major moving group using a novel method that models the fundamental parameters of rapidly rotating A-stars based on interferometric observations and literature photometry and compares these parameters (namely, radius, luminosity, and rotation velocity) with evolution models that account for rotation. We find these stars to be coeval, thus providing an age estimate for the moving group and validating this technique. With this technique validated, we determine the age of the rapidly rotating, directly imaged planet host star, κ Andromedae.
In this study, in situ electrical biasing was combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to study the formation and evolution of Wadsley defects and Magnéli phases during electrical biasing and resistive switching in titanium dioxide (TiO2). Resistive switching devices were fabricated from single-crystal rutile TiO2 substrates through focused ion beam milling and lift-out techniques. Defect evolution and phase transformations in rutile TiO2 were monitored by diffraction contrast imaging inside the TEM during electrical biasing. Reversible bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in these single-crystal TiO2 devices. Biased induced reduction reactions created increased oxygen vacancy concentrations to such an extent that shear faults (Wadsley defects) and oxygen-deficient phases (Magnéli phases) formed over large volumes within the TiO2 TEM specimen. Nevertheless, the observed reversible formation/dissociation of Wadsley defects does not appear to correlate to resistive switching phenomena at these length scales. These defect zones were found to reversibly reconfigure in a manner consistent with charged oxygen vacancy migration responding to the applied bias polarity.
The Anglezarke/Rivington uplands of central Lancashire have, in recent years, suffered severe erosion. In response a programme of field survey was undertaken during 1983 and 1985, supplemented by palynological investigation, modern vegetation survey, and sample excavation. Two sites were investigated in detail, a cairn of likely Bronze Age date and a flint scatter of earlier Mesolithic type. The field survey demonstrated human activity on the upland throughout the prehistoric period and emphasised the heavy post-medieval exploitation of the moorland. Sample excavation confirmed the prehistoric activity and, in the case of the Mesolithic site at Rushy Brow, demonstrated the possibility of recognising and reconstructing periods of prehistoric activity of very short duration — perhaps only a few hours.
Background: Individuals with bipolar disorder often endorse dysfunctional beliefs consistent with cognitive models of bipolar disorder (Beck, 1976; Mansell, 2007). Aims: The present study sought to assess whether young adult offspring of those with bipolar disorder would also endorse these beliefs, independent of their own mood episode history. Method: Participants (N = 89) were young adult college students with a parent with bipolar disorder (n = 27), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 30), or no mood disorder (n = 32). Semi-structured interviews of the offspring were used to assess diagnoses. Dysfunctional beliefs related to Beck and colleagues’ (2006) and Mansell's (2007) cognitive models were assessed. Results: Unlike offspring of parents with MDD or no mood disorder, those with a parent with bipolar disorder endorsed significantly more dysfunctional cognitions associated with extreme appraisal of mood states, even after controlling for their own mood diagnosis. Once affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder, offspring endorsed dysfunctional cognitions across measures. Conclusions: Dysfunctional cognitions, particularly those related to appraisals of mood states and their potential consequences, are evident in young adults with a parent who has bipolar disorder and may represent targets for psychotherapeutic intervention.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
The hen's egg, in the form of table eggs and egg products, forms a staple part of the world's total protein consumption. In the last century, there has been considerable research effort focusing on ways of improving egg production and enhancing the quality of eggs. More recently, and with the development and application of new molecular technologies, our understanding and knowledge of how an egg is formed, what it actually consists of, in terms of its major versus minor components, and what the functional roles of each of these components might be, have been greatly enhanced. For example, new previously unknown molecules with specific activity or functional properties have been discovered in the egg albumen and yolk, some of which have potential uses in pharmaceutical and other food related applications. This review paper, which is the collaborative effort of members of Working Group 4 - Quality of Eggs and Egg Products - of the European Federation of WPSA, describes the scientific research behind a number of these major advances and provides some insight to the focus of current research in this area.
To establish the structural origins of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co-Pt alloys, a variety of magnetic and structural characterization techniques have been utilized. We have determined that the development of out-of-plane magnetization in these alloys, strongly depends on growth temperature and in contrast to CO/Pt Multilayers, the highest anisotropics and coercivities are observed in polycrystalline alloys with negligible preferred crystallographic orientation. Lattice strain Measurements, surface roughness determination and crystal growth studies indicate that contributions from magnetostrictive and magnetostatic contributions to the perpendicular anisotropy in these alloys are not significant. H RTEM and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction experiments, on the other hand, confirm the existence of ordered CoPt3 at elevated temperatures. We suggest that the strong temperature dependence of the perpendicular anisotropy is correlated to the onset of spontaneous chemical ordering during the growth which results in anisotropie pair ordering. A tentative model explaining this strong temperature dependence is described.
Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.