A virus isolated from obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), larvae collected in an apple, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), orchard of Saint-Joseph-du-Lac (Quebec, Canada) was studied. Microscopic studies revealed that it was a uninucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from the family Baculoviridae. Larval mortality was approximately 75% (0% mortality in control group) in larvae infected as third instars immersed in a suspension of 1.7 × 108 occlusion bodies/mL. The average time for larval mortality was 23 ± 3 d after treatment. The majority (95.5%) of infected larvae died as fifth or sixth instars. Infection was observed primarily in fat body cells, and occasionally in the tracheal matrix and epidermis. Mean larval development time of infected larvae surviving to pupae was 20 ± 3 d, significantly greater than the 18 ± 3 d observed in control larvae. Adult emergence was significantly lower in pupae of treated larvae (73.6%) than in the control group (93.5%). Our work constitutes the first baseline study of naturally occurring virus of the obliquebanded leafroller.