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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
At heterojunctions between different oxide perovskite phases both lattice and electronic structure is modified by the junction. One interesting question that several groups have studied is just how far into the neighboring materials these perturbations extend. We have studied this for insulating phases as well as conducting phases. For insulating phases it appears that the lattice distortions are healed in a layer about one unit cell thick. By stacking different materials each of which is only a single unit cell thick we have obtained materials that exhibit new properties determined by the stacking architecture. For example, superlattices that lack inversion symmetry have a built-in polarization that is controlled by the direction of the strain asymmetry. For conducting phases, the electronic structure also seems to be modified mainly in a layer only a few unit cells thick. We have studied this in superlattices of SrTiO3 and LaMnO3 in which we vary the thickness of the layers. We use optical conductivity to probe the electronic structure in the near infrared to near ultraviolet spectral region. The conductivity is close to the average of the two constituents, but differs in certain spectral regions, especially for the films with the thinnest supercells.This work was supported by the Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences program at the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.
Glacio-meteorological data obtained during the Greenland Ice Margin Experiment (GIMEX) investigations in West Greenland (the Søndre Strømfjord transect) have been used to test and calibrate energy-balance/mass-balance models for the ice/snow surface. The region is characterised by the development of a wide zone of low surface albedo in the course of the melting season. This zone was simulated in one of the energy-balance models by including the effect of surficial meltwater on albedo. Observed mass-balance and albedo data were used to constrain the models. Although all the models are capable of predicting the transect balance reasonably well, only the model with the meltwater albedo coupling, is able to reproduce the observed albedo pattern and mass-balance profile along the transect. By including the feedback between surficial meltwater and albedo in the model, the sensitivity of the specific balance to changes in air temperature is found to be greatest just below the equilibrium line (in contrast to what is generally found for valley glaciers). A 1 K warming of the air temperature would increase the mean ablation along the transect by 0.5 m w.e.year −1.
An ice-flow model is used to simulate the front variations of the Pasterze glacier, Austria. The model deals explicitly with the ice flux from sub-streams and tributaries to the main ice stream. The dynamic calibration method adopted successfully calibrates the ice-flow model under a non-steady-state condition. Despite the complexity of the glacier geometry, the ice dynamics of the Pasterze are adequately simulated.
Results of the sensitivity experiments suggest that the Pasterze glacier has been in a non-steady state most of the time and has a response time of 34–50 years.
Projections of the behaviour of the Pasterze in the next 100 years are made under various climate scenarios. Results suggest that the Pasterze will undergo a substantial retreat if there is future warming. The glacier is likely to retreat 2–5 km by the year 2100. The ice volume could be reduced by 24–63% by the end of the 21st century.
Comparative study of CO2 laser-produced tin-droplet plasma with and without pre-pulse laser has been presented. A pre-pulse laser and the CO2 laser was combined and focused to tin-droplet with a diameter of 180 µm. The emitted Sn ions were detected by several Faraday cups to obtain angular distribution of ions in the laser-produced tin-droplet plasma. The influence of pre-pulse laser energy and delay time between pumping laser and pre-pulse laser on the ion characteristics was investigated. It is illustrated that ion average kinetic energy from CO2 laser-produced plasma (LPP) can be reduced when the tin-droplet target has been replaced by the preformed Sn plasma. The obtained optimal delay time with the lowest ion average kinetic energy is about hundreds of nanoseconds. The ion time-of-flight spectra show a twin peak structure in laser-irradiating preformed Sn plasma. And a superimposed Maxwell–Boltzmann (MB) distribution is proposed to describe this twin peak ion time-of-flight spectra. The fitting results quite agree with the raw ion time-of-flight spectra in current experiment. Then, the fitted plasma temperatures and mass-center velocities with various delay times in laser-irradiating preformed plasma are obtained, and the fitted plasma temperatures can be comparable with ion average kinetic energy in double-pulse LPP, which justified the rationality using this superimposed MB distribution.
Heart murmurs are common in children and may represent congenital or acquired cardiac pathology. Auscultation is challenging and many primary-care physicians lack the skill to differentiate innocent from pathologic murmurs. We sought to determine whether computer-aided auscultation (CardioscanTM) identifies which children require referral to a cardiologist.
We consecutively enrolled children aged between 0 and 17 years with a murmur, innocent or pathologic, being evaluated in a tertiary-care cardiology clinic. Children being evaluated for the first time and patients with known cardiac pathology were eligible. We excluded children who had undergone cardiac surgery previously or were unable to sit still for auscultation. CardioscanTM auscultation was performed in a quiet room with the subject in the supine position. The sensitivity and specificity of a potentially pathologic murmur designation by CardioscanTM – that is, requiring referral – was determined using echocardiography as the reference standard.
We enrolled 126 subjects (44% female) with a median age of 1.7 years, with 93 (74%) having cardiac pathology. The sensitivity and specificity of a potentially pathologic murmur determination by CardioscanTM for identification of cardiac pathology were 83.9 and 30.3%, respectively, versus 75.0 and 71.4%, respectively, when limited to subjects with a heart rate of 50–120 beats per minute. The combination of a CardioscanTM potentially pathologic murmur designation or an abnormal electrocardiogram improved sensitivity to 93.5%, with no haemodynamically significant lesions missed.
Sensitivity of CardioscanTM when interpreted in conjunction with an abnormal electrocardiogram was high, although specificity was poor. Re-evaluation of computer-aided auscultation will remain necessary as advances in this technology become available.
Canola (Brassica napus L.) meal is widely used in animal feed as a protein source, and its quality relies on protein and amino acid content. However, little information is available regarding amino acid regulation in canola seed with nitrogen (N) application. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of N rate and genotype on canola seed amino acid concentrations under field conditions. A split-plot design comprising four N rates (0, 120, 240 and 360 kg N/ha) and three genotypes differing in seed protein content were used in 2010/11 and 2011/12. The results showed that increasing N rate decreased seed oil content linearly but increased seed protein content in all of the genotypes. The total amino acid concentration and absolute concentrations of individual amino acids in canola seed also improved significantly with the N rates in all of the genotypes. Regarding the proportions of amino acids, a group that included glutamic acid (Glu), proline (Pro) and arginine (Arg) dominated and occupied > 0·30 compared with other amino acids. The ratio of amino acids in this group increased by 8·3% with 360 kg N/ha compared with the control. However, the proportions of the other amino acids showed negative responses to the N rates. The results of regression analysis of the responses of individual amino acids to N rate indicated that Glu, Pro and Arg had a greater improvement potential with application of N fertilizer, as revealed by higher slopes in the linear equations compared with the other amino acids. Additionally, the concentrations of sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, were also a potential target for improving with N application because these are always deficient in major crops. In conclusion, N application cannot only improve seed protein content but also enhance deposition of amino acids such as Glu, Pro and Arg.
Outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections associated with acupuncture has not been reported. Thirteen patients with a painful swollen lump were referred to our hospital. The index patient received acupuncture and paraspinal muscular injection at a local acupuncture clinic in April 2011 and was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis 1 month later. From May 2011 to August 2011, 12 more patients with a swollen lump on the nuchal region or in the lower back or the buttocks region were referred to our hospital. Tuberculin skin test (TST), T-SPOT.TB, acid-fast stain, M. tuberculosis culture, chest radiograph, and lump magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and the patients were diagnosed with tuberculous abscess of the lump. All 13 patients received intramuscular injection at the paraspinal muscle by two acupuncturists at a local clinic and reported a swollen lump at the injection site. The needles and syringes were reused after autoclave sterilization. The TST was positive in all patients. Twelve patients had positive acid-fast stains. Mycobacterial cultures of abscess specimens were positive in all 13 patients. T-SPOT.TB tests were positive in all patients who underwent the test. The lesions and biopsies were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing by the Disease Control Center of Zhejiang Province, China and the causative agent was identified as M. tuberculosis, Beijing type. In conclusion, physicians should consider the possibility of mycobacterial infections, apart from other bacterial agents, in patients with a swollen paraspinal lump following intramuscular injection.
Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown.
Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population.
Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC.
These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.