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How did one man living on an island come to acquire information about the rest of the vast archipelago? This article traces the inter-island information networks of Georg Everhard Rumphius (1627–1702), an employee of the Dutch East India Company, who was able to explore the natural world of the wider archipelago without ever leaving the Moluccan island of Ambon. This article demonstrates the complexities of Rumphius's inter-island networks, as he collected information about plants and objects from islands near and far. Using his administrative, commercial and household networks, Rumphius was able to interact with local actors from across the social spectrum, whose own active collection, mediation and circulation of objects and information overlapped with imperial activities in the archipelago. This article examines Rumphius as both a collector and a mediator, who negotiated between multiple economies of exchange and translated information from different islands for his distant European readership. Such practices of localized translation demonstrate how knowledge produced on one island was the product of criss-crossing inter-island networks, as the information concerned underwent its own complicated processes of transmission and transformation within the archipelago before reaching its intended audience in Europe.
Caregivers for patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are susceptible to significant psychosocial distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe psychosocial support services offered and used by caregivers of pediatric primary immune deficiency (PID) during HCT at 35 hospitals across North America.
Caregivers of pediatric patients with PID were recruited by e-mail to participate in an anonymous 140-question survey instrument between April and May 2016 (N = 171).
Of those meeting inclusion criteria (53%), family counseling services were only offered to fewer than half of caregivers (42%). Of the survey participants not offered counseling services, the majority desired family counseling (70%) and sibling counseling (73%). That said, when offered counseling, utilization rates were low, with 22% of caregivers using family counseling and none using sibling counseling.
Significance of results
These results indicate the need to offer and tailor counseling services for families throughout the HCT process. Further research should focus on reducing barriers to utilization of counseling services such as offering bedside counseling services, online modalities, and/or financial assistance.
Introduction: Intubation is one of the highest-risk procedures performed in the ED. Few Canadian centres monitor intubation frequency, indications, methods used, success, and/or complication rates. An airway registry that tracks patient outcomes and variation in practice would be a valuable quality improvement (QI) tool. We describe the development of the BC-Airway Registry for Emergencies (BCARE) network, an emergency intubation database at two tertiary-care and one community hospital. Methods: Respiratory Therapists (RTs) are present at every intubation outside of the OR and complete a standardized post-intubation form. The airway forms were developed collaboratively with input from RTs, emergency physicians, intensivists, and anesthetists. Completed forms are collected from participating sites and data is entered into a secure online database where patient outcomes are analyzed in real-time. Results: We collected data from 737 unique intubations over 19 months with ongoing enrolment at the time of abstract submission. Mean age was 59.4 (Range 17-95, SD 17.6), Male 66.2%, intubation locations were ED (396, 53.7%), ICU (221, 30.0%), Ward (120, 16.3%). The most common indications for ED intubation were ICH/stroke (14.6%), seizure (10.9%), and sepsis (9.5%). Intubations are done by attending physicians more frequently in the ED (48.0%) compared to in the ICU (11.8%), and ward (8.6%). ED intubations were more commonly performed using video laryngoscopy (57.7%) with a smaller proportion using direct laryngoscopy (39.0%). First-pass success was 81.8% in the ED, 79.2% in the ICU, and 77.5% on the wards. Of ED intubations, 56 (14.1%) had complications and 73 (18.4%) were considered to be a difficult airway. Conclusion: The BCARE network tracks intubation performance across hospitals and is a valuable QI tool. BCARE can be used to ensure that all centres are meeting a benchmark success rate, for assessing the impact of practice changes such as pre-intubation checklists, and for implementing systematic methods to identify patients who previously had a “difficult airway.”
Cultures obtained from pre-operative middle-ear swabs from patients with chronic otitis media have traditionally been used to guide antibiotic selection. This study investigated changes in the bacterial strains of the middle ear during chronic otitis media surgery.
Pre-operative bacterial cultures of otorrhoea, and peri-operative cultures of the granulation tissue in either the middle ear or mastoid cavity, were obtained. Post-operative cultures were selectively obtained when otorrhoea developed after surgery.
Bacterial growth was observed in 45.5 per cent of pre-operative cultures, 13.5 per cent of peri-operative cultures and 4.5 per cent of post-operative cultures. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified as the most common bacteria in all pre-operative (32.4 per cent), peri-operative (52.4 per cent) and post-operative (71.4 per cent) tests, and the percentage of Methicillin-resistant S aureus increased from the pre- to the post-operative period.
The bacterial culture results for post-operative otorrhoea showed low agreement with those for pre-operative or peri-operative culture, and strain re-identification was required.
Introduction: Intubation is a high-risk procedure that is frequently performed within the ED. Few Canadian centres have a system in place to monitor intubation frequency, indications, methods used, operator characteristics, first-pass success, and adverse event rates. There are no published data on the frequency of success or complications of emergency airway management in Canada. An airway registry would be a valuable quality improvement (QI) tool for assessing the impact of practice changes such as pre-intubation checklists and for identifying patients with “difficult airways.” We describe the development and implementation of an airway registry in a Canadian tertiary-care centre. Methods: We created a collaborative working group with staff from EM, ICU, Respiratory Therapy (RT), and Privacy. An airway data form was created. Over a 3 month trial period, the form was completed by RTs following each non-OR intubation. At our centre, RTs are present at every intubation outside of the OR. If a patient was intubated outside of the hospital, forms were completed using verbal handover. RTs also provided constructive feedback and after 3 months the form was revised and finalized. Medical student volunteers entered data from the forms and from chart reviews into a secure online database created for this purpose. Results: We have enrolled 373 patients over the first 5 months with ongoing enrolment at the time of abstract submission. The airway form captures the seniority and discipline of the intubator, preparation, technique, and any airway manoeuvres that were used. The form also captures Cormack-Lehane airway grading, confirmation techniques, complications, and the option to identify the patient as a “Difficult Airway.” Privacy permission was granted to include patient identifiers in the airway registry so that additional information from chart reviews could be obtained at a later date. Preliminary results will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Our airway registry tracks intubation performance and may identify factors associated with adverse patient outcomes, which could prompt system-wide changes. Comparison of intubation performance to other Canadian institutions may be possible if similar airway registries are implemented. The development and implementation of an airway registry requires multi-disciplinary collaboration, engagement, and user feedback.
The enhanced error monitoring in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), typically measured with the error-related negativity (ERN), has been found to be temporally stable and independent of symptom expression. Here, we examined whether the error monitoring in patients with OCD could be experimentally modulated by individually tailored symptom provocation.
Twenty patients with OCD and 20 healthy controls performed a flanker task in which OCD-relevant or neutral pictures were presented prior to a flanker stimulus. An individualized stimulus set consisting of the most provoking images in terms of OCD symptoms was selected for each patient with OCD. Response-locked event-related potentials were recorded and used to examine the error-related brain activity.
Patients with OCD showed larger ERN amplitudes than did control subjects in both the OCD-symptom provocation and neutral conditions. Additionally, while patients with OCD exhibited a significant increase in the ERN under the OCD-symptom provocation condition when compared with the neutral condition, control subjects showed no variation in the ERN between the conditions.
Our results strengthen earlier findings of hyperactive error monitoring in OCD, as indexed by higher ERN amplitudes in patients with OCD than in controls. Importantly, we showed that the patients’ overactive error-signals were experimentally enhanced by individually tailored OCD-symptom triggers, thus suggesting convincing evidence between OCD-symptoms and ERN. Such findings imply that therapeutic interventions should target affective regulation in order to alleviate the perceived threatening value of OCD triggers.
To determine the length and position of a thyroidectomy scar that is cosmetically most appealing to naïve raters.
Images of thyroidectomy scars were reproduced on male and female necks using digital imaging software. Surgical variables studied were scar position and length. Fifteen raters were presented with 56 scar pairings and asked to identify which was preferred cosmetically. Twenty duplicate pairings were included to assess rater reliability. Analysis of variance was used to determine preference.
Raters preferred low, short scars, followed by high, short scars, with long scars in either position being less desirable (p < 0.05). Twelve of 15 raters had acceptable intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.
Naïve raters preferred low, short scars over the alternatives. High, short scars were the next most favourably rated. If other factors influencing incision choice are considered equal, surgeons should consider these preferences in scar position and length when planning their thyroidectomy approach.
This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated and ultrafast laser radiation under ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook on developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies, and potential applications.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
We present a rare case of a young patient with chest pain whose ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) was detected by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) leading to a successful surgical repair. POCUS identified a moderate pericardial effusion and an associated severely dilated ascending aorta. In this context, it is important to rule out aortic rupture and aortic dissection. We also discuss the epidemiology, complications, and management of TAAs as well as the role of cardiac POCUS in the diagnosis of thoracic aneurysmal disease.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.
High-throughput genotyping using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is one tool that can be used to study the genetic relationships between wild rice relatives and cultivated rice. In this study, a set of 96 indica–japonica SNP markers, which can differentiate indica and japonica subspecies of rice, were used to characterize 227 Oryza accessions including 93 AA genome accessions from seven wild Oryza species. A total of 72 markers of the 96 markers were selected for the phylogenetic study and allele polymorphism survey. A subset of SNP markers were present only in Oryza sativa and evolutionarily close species, Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon. These markers can be used for distinguishing cultivated rice from the other species and vice versa. Eight clusters were generated through phylogenetic analysis, and Oryza meridionalis and Oryza longistaminata appeared to be the most distantly related species to cultivated rice. In this study, Oryza barthii and Oryza glaberrima accessions were found to exhibit high genetic similarity. Across the wild species, more indica-type alleles were detected for most accessions. In this study, a set of markers selected to be informative across O. sativa accessions were used, but it will be interesting to compare the results of this study with SNP data obtained through next-generation sequencing in the future.
We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contact endoscopy in evaluating oral and oropharyngeal mucosal lesions.
Between January 2010 and December 2011, 34 patients with lesions of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa were enrolled in the study. Comparison between initial contact endoscopy results and ‘gold standard’ tissue biopsy was undertaken.
Nine patients had histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma, 2 had carcinoma in situ, 3 had dysplastic lesions and 20 patients had various benign lesions. Contact endoscopy demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 89 and 100 per cent respectively in the evaluation of malignant lesions. Benign lesions were correctly categorised in 50 per cent of cases (10/20). The video images from contact endoscopy could not be interpreted in six cases.
Contact endoscopy demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity in the imaging of malignant lesions with reduced reliability in the evaluation of benign lesions. Significant shortcomings also exist in the design of current technology that we believe represent a significant barrier to the reliable collection of useful video data.