To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The onset of magnetic reconnection in space, astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is reviewed discussing results from theory, numerical simulations and observations. After a brief introduction on magnetic reconnection and approach to the question of onset, we first discuss recent theoretical models and numerical simulations, followed by observations of reconnection and its effects in space and astrophysical plasmas from satellites and ground-based detectors, as well as measurements of reconnection in laboratory plasma experiments. Mechanisms allowing reconnection spanning from collisional resistivity to kinetic effects as well as partial ionization are described, providing a description valid over a wide range of plasma parameters, and therefore applicable in principle to many different astrophysical and laboratory environments. Finally, we summarize the implications of reconnection onset physics for plasma dynamics throughout the Universe and illustrate how capturing the dynamics correctly is important to understanding particle acceleration. The goal of this review is to give a view on the present status of this topic and future interesting investigations, offering a unified approach.
Introduction: Intubation is one of the highest-risk procedures performed in the emergency department (ED) on a regular basis. The British Columbia Airway Registry for Emergencies (BCARE) Network collects data from every ED intubation at two tertiary care centres and one community centre and serves as a valuable quality improvement tool. We compared intubation techniques, success, and complication rates between emergency medicine physicians and trainees. Methods: We completed an observational study of all patients intubated in the ED by resident trainees or attending physicians over a period of 28 months from July 2017 to November 2019. Respiratory therapists (RTs) completed a standardized data collection form after every intubation and the data was used to analyze techniques, success, and complication rates. Form completion compliance was periodically reviewed by cross-referencing patient names in the BCARE network with the radiology database for chest x-rays that were performed after intubation in the hospital. Results: 642 intubations were performed by EM physicians: 66 by PGY1-2 residents,141 by PGY3-5 residents, and 435 by staff physicians. Airway assessment prior to intubation was completed by PGY1-2 in 78.1% of cases, PGY3-5 in 67.9%, and staff in 62.6%. Direct laryngoscopy (DL) was chosen as first-choice technique 24.2% by PGY1-2, 24.8% by PGY3-5, and 30.1% by attending physicians. Bougie was used 2.7% of cases for all groups. First-pass success was 78.8% for PGY1-2, 86.5% for PGY3-5, and 85.7% for staff. Mean number of attempts were similar at 1.24, 1.18, and 1.20 for R1-2, R3-5, and staff, respectively. There were similar complication rates between all groups, on average 16.9%, with the most common being hypoxemia prior to induction, and desaturation following induction. There was a higher rate of staff performing second intubation attempts following junior residents (50.0%) than senior residents (26.3%). Conclusion: Trainees have a stronger preference to use video laryngoscopy (VL) than staff physicians as their first-line technique. Success rates were similar between senior residents and attending physicians, but significantly lower in junior residents, despite number of attempts being similar between the three groups. Complication rates were similar among all 3 groups. This data may suggest that a stronger emphasis for DL use among trainees is important.
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease defined by various respiratory complaints and can present in all age groups. Its hallmarks are variable airflow limitation and chronic airway inflammation. With disease progression, the variability in airflow limitation can become irreversible.
The objective of this family-based whole exome sequencing (WES) is to examine genetic variants of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Korean population.
The probands with ASD and their biological parents were recruited in this study. We ascertained diagnosis based on DSM-5™ criteria, using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised. We selected probands with typical phenotypes of ASD both in social interaction/communication and repetitive behaviour/limited interest domains, with intellectual disability (IQ < 70), for attaining homogeneity of the phenotypes. First, we performed WES minimum 50× for 13 probands and high-coverage pooled sequencing for their parents. We performed additional WES for 38 trio families, at least 100× depth. De novo mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All the sequence reads were mapped onto the human reference genome (hg19 without Y chromosome). Bioinformatics analyses were performed by BWA-MEM, Picard, GATK, and snpEff for variant annotation. We selected de novo mutation candidates from probands, which are neither detected in two pooled samples nor both parents.
Fifty-one subjects with ASD (5 females, 40∼175 months, mean IQ 42) and their families were included in this study. We discovered 109 de novo variants from 46 families. Twenty-nine variants are expected to be amino acid changing, potentially causing deleterious effects. We assume CELSR3, MYH1, ATXN1, IDUA, NFKB1, and C4A/C4B may have adverse effect on central nerve system.
We observed novel de novo variants which are assumed to contribute to development of ASD with typical phenotypes and low intelligence in WES study.
Disclosure of interest
This work has been supported by Healthcare Technology R&D project (No: A120029) by Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea.
How did one man living on an island come to acquire information about the rest of the vast archipelago? This article traces the inter-island information networks of Georg Everhard Rumphius (1627–1702), an employee of the Dutch East India Company, who was able to explore the natural world of the wider archipelago without ever leaving the Moluccan island of Ambon. This article demonstrates the complexities of Rumphius's inter-island networks, as he collected information about plants and objects from islands near and far. Using his administrative, commercial and household networks, Rumphius was able to interact with local actors from across the social spectrum, whose own active collection, mediation and circulation of objects and information overlapped with imperial activities in the archipelago. This article examines Rumphius as both a collector and a mediator, who negotiated between multiple economies of exchange and translated information from different islands for his distant European readership. Such practices of localized translation demonstrate how knowledge produced on one island was the product of criss-crossing inter-island networks, as the information concerned underwent its own complicated processes of transmission and transformation within the archipelago before reaching its intended audience in Europe.
Caregivers for patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are susceptible to significant psychosocial distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe psychosocial support services offered and used by caregivers of pediatric primary immune deficiency (PID) during HCT at 35 hospitals across North America.
Caregivers of pediatric patients with PID were recruited by e-mail to participate in an anonymous 140-question survey instrument between April and May 2016 (N = 171).
Of those meeting inclusion criteria (53%), family counseling services were only offered to fewer than half of caregivers (42%). Of the survey participants not offered counseling services, the majority desired family counseling (70%) and sibling counseling (73%). That said, when offered counseling, utilization rates were low, with 22% of caregivers using family counseling and none using sibling counseling.
Significance of results
These results indicate the need to offer and tailor counseling services for families throughout the HCT process. Further research should focus on reducing barriers to utilization of counseling services such as offering bedside counseling services, online modalities, and/or financial assistance.
Introduction: Intubation is one of the highest-risk procedures performed in the ED. Few Canadian centres monitor intubation frequency, indications, methods used, success, and/or complication rates. An airway registry that tracks patient outcomes and variation in practice would be a valuable quality improvement (QI) tool. We describe the development of the BC-Airway Registry for Emergencies (BCARE) network, an emergency intubation database at two tertiary-care and one community hospital. Methods: Respiratory Therapists (RTs) are present at every intubation outside of the OR and complete a standardized post-intubation form. The airway forms were developed collaboratively with input from RTs, emergency physicians, intensivists, and anesthetists. Completed forms are collected from participating sites and data is entered into a secure online database where patient outcomes are analyzed in real-time. Results: We collected data from 737 unique intubations over 19 months with ongoing enrolment at the time of abstract submission. Mean age was 59.4 (Range 17-95, SD 17.6), Male 66.2%, intubation locations were ED (396, 53.7%), ICU (221, 30.0%), Ward (120, 16.3%). The most common indications for ED intubation were ICH/stroke (14.6%), seizure (10.9%), and sepsis (9.5%). Intubations are done by attending physicians more frequently in the ED (48.0%) compared to in the ICU (11.8%), and ward (8.6%). ED intubations were more commonly performed using video laryngoscopy (57.7%) with a smaller proportion using direct laryngoscopy (39.0%). First-pass success was 81.8% in the ED, 79.2% in the ICU, and 77.5% on the wards. Of ED intubations, 56 (14.1%) had complications and 73 (18.4%) were considered to be a difficult airway. Conclusion: The BCARE network tracks intubation performance across hospitals and is a valuable QI tool. BCARE can be used to ensure that all centres are meeting a benchmark success rate, for assessing the impact of practice changes such as pre-intubation checklists, and for implementing systematic methods to identify patients who previously had a “difficult airway.”
Cultures obtained from pre-operative middle-ear swabs from patients with chronic otitis media have traditionally been used to guide antibiotic selection. This study investigated changes in the bacterial strains of the middle ear during chronic otitis media surgery.
Pre-operative bacterial cultures of otorrhoea, and peri-operative cultures of the granulation tissue in either the middle ear or mastoid cavity, were obtained. Post-operative cultures were selectively obtained when otorrhoea developed after surgery.
Bacterial growth was observed in 45.5 per cent of pre-operative cultures, 13.5 per cent of peri-operative cultures and 4.5 per cent of post-operative cultures. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified as the most common bacteria in all pre-operative (32.4 per cent), peri-operative (52.4 per cent) and post-operative (71.4 per cent) tests, and the percentage of Methicillin-resistant S aureus increased from the pre- to the post-operative period.
The bacterial culture results for post-operative otorrhoea showed low agreement with those for pre-operative or peri-operative culture, and strain re-identification was required.
Introduction: Intubation is a high-risk procedure that is frequently performed within the ED. Few Canadian centres have a system in place to monitor intubation frequency, indications, methods used, operator characteristics, first-pass success, and adverse event rates. There are no published data on the frequency of success or complications of emergency airway management in Canada. An airway registry would be a valuable quality improvement (QI) tool for assessing the impact of practice changes such as pre-intubation checklists and for identifying patients with “difficult airways.” We describe the development and implementation of an airway registry in a Canadian tertiary-care centre. Methods: We created a collaborative working group with staff from EM, ICU, Respiratory Therapy (RT), and Privacy. An airway data form was created. Over a 3 month trial period, the form was completed by RTs following each non-OR intubation. At our centre, RTs are present at every intubation outside of the OR. If a patient was intubated outside of the hospital, forms were completed using verbal handover. RTs also provided constructive feedback and after 3 months the form was revised and finalized. Medical student volunteers entered data from the forms and from chart reviews into a secure online database created for this purpose. Results: We have enrolled 373 patients over the first 5 months with ongoing enrolment at the time of abstract submission. The airway form captures the seniority and discipline of the intubator, preparation, technique, and any airway manoeuvres that were used. The form also captures Cormack-Lehane airway grading, confirmation techniques, complications, and the option to identify the patient as a “Difficult Airway.” Privacy permission was granted to include patient identifiers in the airway registry so that additional information from chart reviews could be obtained at a later date. Preliminary results will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Our airway registry tracks intubation performance and may identify factors associated with adverse patient outcomes, which could prompt system-wide changes. Comparison of intubation performance to other Canadian institutions may be possible if similar airway registries are implemented. The development and implementation of an airway registry requires multi-disciplinary collaboration, engagement, and user feedback.
The enhanced error monitoring in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), typically measured with the error-related negativity (ERN), has been found to be temporally stable and independent of symptom expression. Here, we examined whether the error monitoring in patients with OCD could be experimentally modulated by individually tailored symptom provocation.
Twenty patients with OCD and 20 healthy controls performed a flanker task in which OCD-relevant or neutral pictures were presented prior to a flanker stimulus. An individualized stimulus set consisting of the most provoking images in terms of OCD symptoms was selected for each patient with OCD. Response-locked event-related potentials were recorded and used to examine the error-related brain activity.
Patients with OCD showed larger ERN amplitudes than did control subjects in both the OCD-symptom provocation and neutral conditions. Additionally, while patients with OCD exhibited a significant increase in the ERN under the OCD-symptom provocation condition when compared with the neutral condition, control subjects showed no variation in the ERN between the conditions.
Our results strengthen earlier findings of hyperactive error monitoring in OCD, as indexed by higher ERN amplitudes in patients with OCD than in controls. Importantly, we showed that the patients’ overactive error-signals were experimentally enhanced by individually tailored OCD-symptom triggers, thus suggesting convincing evidence between OCD-symptoms and ERN. Such findings imply that therapeutic interventions should target affective regulation in order to alleviate the perceived threatening value of OCD triggers.
To determine the length and position of a thyroidectomy scar that is cosmetically most appealing to naïve raters.
Images of thyroidectomy scars were reproduced on male and female necks using digital imaging software. Surgical variables studied were scar position and length. Fifteen raters were presented with 56 scar pairings and asked to identify which was preferred cosmetically. Twenty duplicate pairings were included to assess rater reliability. Analysis of variance was used to determine preference.
Raters preferred low, short scars, followed by high, short scars, with long scars in either position being less desirable (p < 0.05). Twelve of 15 raters had acceptable intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.
Naïve raters preferred low, short scars over the alternatives. High, short scars were the next most favourably rated. If other factors influencing incision choice are considered equal, surgeons should consider these preferences in scar position and length when planning their thyroidectomy approach.
This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated and ultrafast laser radiation under ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook on developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies, and potential applications.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
We present a rare case of a young patient with chest pain whose ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) was detected by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) leading to a successful surgical repair. POCUS identified a moderate pericardial effusion and an associated severely dilated ascending aorta. In this context, it is important to rule out aortic rupture and aortic dissection. We also discuss the epidemiology, complications, and management of TAAs as well as the role of cardiac POCUS in the diagnosis of thoracic aneurysmal disease.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.