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The fourth edition of Australian Intellectual Property Law provides a detailed and comprehensive, yet concise and accessible discussion of intellectual property law in Australia. This edition has been thoroughly revised to cover the most recent developments in intellectual property law, including significant case law and discussion of the proposed and enacted amendments to the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) and the Plant Breeder's Rights Act 1994 (Cth). The text has been restructured, but continues to provide a complete discussion of the black-letter aspects of the law. Commencing with copyright, then followed by design law, confidential information, patents, plant breeder's rights, then finally trade marks. The work ends with a chapter on enforcing legal rights and civil remedies. Written by highly-respected intellectual property law researchers this text is an invaluable resource for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics and other professionals working with intellectual property.
In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Cancer is increasing worldwide. Patterns of cancer are also changing. The evidence is summarised in the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research report Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective. The plasticity of cancer patterns implicates environmental factors as determinants of cancer, and nutrition influences key cellular and molecular processes that characterise cancer. Epidemiology identifies associations between aspects of diet, nutrition, and physical activity with one or more cancers; there is evidence for plausible mechanisms that imply that these are causal. Some nutritional exposures (alcohol and processed meat) are likely causal factors, but no singular factor protects against cancer (except dietary fibre for colorectal cancer). Cancer protection mainly derives from a systemic metabolic environment that promotes healthy cell replication and tissue integrity. Such a nutritional state reflects avoiding excess adiposity through healthy dietary patterns rich in plant foods (legumes, wholegrains, pulses, vegetables and fruits), with modest meat, fish and dairy, low in alcohol and salt preserved foods, and an active way of life, avoiding sedentary behaviours. Less is known about the impact of nutritional interventions in people with a diagnosis of cancer, but nutrition including adiposity and physical activity predict breast cancer outcome. Promoting healthy ways of life requires public information and education, but alone these do not generate change; a socio-political and cultural environment that is conducive to adopting healthy behaviours is needed. Uncertainties in the evidence offer promising directions for future research, but sufficient is known to act as a basis for public policy and clinical practice.
Different inert markers have been employed in nutritional studies, (Kotb and Luckey, 1972). The most commonly found marker in studies involving pigs is chromic oxide (Low, 1982) although it is now apparent that many problems are associated with its use. Other metal oxides, particularly titanium dioxide, may prove to be superior alternatives but further validation of their use as markers is required, (Kotb and Luckey, 1972). In an evaluation of inert markers, (Jagger et al. 1992) it was found that, for the determination of ileal and faecal apparent digestibility values in the pig, titanium dioxide at a rate of lg/kg feed was the most suitable of those tested. However, this conclusion was drawn from results obtained from one dietary treatment only. A crucial assumption of the use of inert markers is that they move in phase with the digesta which might not be the case if components vary widely in physical characteristics, leading possibly to differential adsorption of marker. Accordingly the objective of the current experiment was an evaluation of titanium dioxide in diets representing likely extremes of levels of fat or fibrous raw materials.
Falconer and MacKay (1996) note that the measurement of a trait in two different environments may be considered as two traits rather than one. In this way it is possible, through the calculation of genetic correlations, to estimate to what extent the two measurements under different conditions are in fact the same characteristic and are determined by the same genes. The widespread use of AI in pig production has faltered due to problems with dilution and cryopreservation of semen and yet an industry split, where breeders and nucleus herds use AI extensively but multipliers and commercial producers do not, is becoming apparent. Reproductive traits are increasingly seen as an important component of overall pig production and while the genetic correlation between reproductive and production traits has been explored, little work has focused on the genotype by environment interaction of such fertility traits. The present study reports the genetic relationship of number born alive (NBA) in litters conceived naturally and by AI, and in rate of weaning to first service (WTFS-1).
The presence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (SNSP) in non-ruminant diets can have a negative effect on digestibility due to the increase in digesta viscosity they invariably promote. Viscosity measurements studies have relied on supernatant viscosity following the removal of solid particles from the digesta via centrifugation. However, Takahashi and Sakata (2004) observed that the removal of solid particles from caecal contents changes the basic rheological characteristics of digesta from a non-Newtonian fluid to a Newtonian fluid. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a SNSP source in piglet diets on whole digesta viscosity measurements as determined through a novel protocol developed at Nottingham.
Feeding non-digestible, fermentable carbohydrates that do not lead to increased viscosity may reduce risk of enteric disorders arising from feeding high protein diets to newly weaned pigs (Wellock et al. 2007). Lactose and inulin are such fermentable carbohydrates. Lactose is fermented at a relatively high rate, and would thus affect gut environment in the distal ileum and proximal large intestine. In contrast, inulin is fermented more slowly and would be expected to affect gut environment in the proximal and distal large intestine. Consequently, their combined use could be expected to affect gut environment throughout the distal gastrointestinal tract, and through their prebiotic action reduce risk of enteric disorders (Wellock et al. 2007). The objective of the current experiment was to investigate the combined effects of lactose level and inulin inclusion on the performance and health of weaned pigs in the immediate post weaning period, in the absence of anti-microbial growth promoters, therapeutic levels of ZnO and CuSO4 in a commercial, large-scale facility.
There is potential for improving the growth performance of pigs through a better understanding of factors that influence the digestibility of nutrients and energy in liquid feeds. These factors include dry matter content and the size and distribution of particles of the dry feed components within the liquid diet. The objective of the current study was to determine if changing the dry matter concentration of liquid feeds affects the digestibility and retention of nutrients and energy in pigs growing from 35kg to 95kg live weight.
Exogenous xylanases reduce anti-nutritional factors in feedstuffs and help optimise digestion in the small intestine through their positive effects on water holding capacity, nutrient packaging, digesta viscosity and flow. The net effect is reduced likelihood of both undesirable bacterial proliferation in the small intestine and migration of bacteria from the large to the small intestine leading to a disease challenge and hence reduced performance. Osmotic upsets have also been observed with pigs fed cereal-based diets, and the osmoregulatory role of betaine may strengthen the pig’s defence of this condition. As the mode of action of betaine is different from enzymes, it has been postulated that piglets may be responsive to combinations of these additives. The object of the experiment reported was to study the performance of weaner pigs fed diets containing differing rates of inclusion of exogenous xylanase and betaine.
Exogenous enzymes have been used in pig feed to reduce the antinutritional factors in the cereal components of the diets and, as a consequence, improve energy and protein digestibility. The predominant fibre components in barley are soluble β-glucans and insoluble arabinoxylans, both of which are known to have anti-nutritional effects in the pig but through different mechanisms. In wheat both soluble and insoluble arabinoxylans are relevant, for the same reasons (Partridge, 2001). Consequently a product with a combination of β-glucanase and xylanase may be necessary to elicit a performance improvement in pigs fed diets containing both barley and wheat. Furthermore, much work in grower/finisher pigs has been undertaken at single inclusion levels of enzyme product. The object of the current study was to compare the response of growing and finishing pigs fed diets containing barley and wheat supplemented with a β-glucanase and xylanase product included at different levels in the diet.
Wheat is a good source of carbohydrates for ruminants, and recent low prices in the UK suggest that usage is likely to increase. However, there is a shortage of information on the digestibility of wheat in the rumen. Such information is vital for predicting the relative value of wheat as a source of fermentable metabolisable energy or by-pass starch. Digestibility is likely to be affected by growing conditions and genetics. Genetic differences are found between wheat varieties, but comparisons of named varieties yield limited information because many characteristics vary simultaneously. This problem can be overcome by using near-isogenic lines of wheat that vary only in a limited number of known characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the rumen digestion characteristics of different near-isogenic wheat lines grown under the same agronomic conditions.
There is potential for improving the growth performance of pigs through a better understanding of factors that influence the digestibility of nutrients and energy in liquid feeds, and developing standard operational procedures for liquid feeding forms an important part of the MLC-coordinated Finishing Pigs Systems Research programme. The objective is to determine how changing the dry matter concentration of liquid feeds, or the particle size of dry ingredients used in liquid feeds, affects digestibility and retention of nutrients and energy in growing/finishing pigs.
Leg-weakness in female breeding pigs has serious implications both in terms of economics and welfare, accounting for up to 0.2 of first litter gilt cullings at an estimated cost to the UK pig industry of up to £3.0 million (Douglas, 1992), with the principal predisposing cause in the growing pig being osteochondrosis. It has been reported that selection for increased lean tissue growth rate and increased growth rate accompanied by ad libitum feeding of diets with high energy and nutrient concentration may increase the incidence of osteochondrosis and leg- weakness (Jorgensen and Sorensen, 1998), although evidence is largely equivocal. The effect of protein level in the diet is uncertain. Although both high and low levels of dietary protein lead to bone growth failure and fracture in human studies ( Reid and New, 1997), protein level has not been found to affect osteochondrosis in pigs (Jorgensen, 1995), thus the aim of the current study was to assess further the effect of protein nutrition on leg weakness in gilts.
The post-weaning growth check causes considerable economic losses in pig production. Some of the problems in susceptibility to disease have been associated with immunoregulation. For example, immaturity of the neonatal immune system, stress-associated and pathogen-induced immunosuppression have all been linked to increased disease susceptibility throughout the early post-weaning period. Studies in both infants and animal models suggest that dietary nucleotides have significant effects on the immune and gastrointestinal systems (see Carver, 1999). It has been suggested that under conditions of limited nucleotide intake, rapid growth or certain disease challenges, dietary (or preformed) nucleotides may spare the cost of de novo nucleotide synthesis and optimise the metabolic function of rapidly dividing tissues such as those of the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The aims of the current study were to determine the effects of a yeast-based nucleotide source (Ascogen™; Chemoforma Ltd, Switzerland) on performance, gut physiology, microflora and immunological parameters in post-weaned piglets.
The responses of pigs to diets supplemented with enzymes have been variable (review by Partridge, 2000). The situation has not been eased due to an uncertainty over the usefulness of laboratory analyses of enzyme activity as a measure of performance. One issue has been the temperature of feed pelleting in which laboratory assays for apparent enzyme activity have shown very low levels compared with the known level included in the feed, whereas experimental data have indicated typical poultry responses from the enzyme-supplemented feed (Bedford and Pack, 1998). The experiment reported here studied the performance of pigs fed diets to which enzymes were added either pre-or post- pelleting (which was conducted at 850 C).
Reproductive failure is a source of major economic loss to the UK pig industry, accounting for 0.5 of all first parity gilt cullings (MLC Pig Year Book, 1995). Previous research (Cameron et al, 1999) has shown that rearing gilts on a diet formulated to support maximal protein deposition has beneficial effects on ovulation rate at 3rd oestrus. The aim of the current experiment was to develop further the previous model to assess long and short-term effects of protein nutrition on reproductive performance, body composition and metabolic status.
Reproductive failure, especially in young sows, is the major contributor to the steady rise in sow culling and mortality rates in recent years. There is now considerable interest in the nutrition of the gilt and its effect on production characteristics and subsequent reproductive performance. Both fat, and more recently lean tissue, have been postulated to play singularly important roles. The objective of the current study was to use production performance criteria of both primiparous and multiparous animals to estimate the proportions of fat and lean tissue mobilised during lactation.
Ninety two animals, forty five gilts and forty seven third parity sows, based at the University commercial pig unit, were used in this study. All animals were weighed and monitored for P2 backfat depth on entry to the farrowing house, during lactation and, finally, at weaning. The data for each individual animal was then used to calculate, by linear regression, the daily rate of loss of both body weight and P2 backfat depth during lactation. These responses were then utilized to calculate the weight and P2 backfat level of each animal on days 1 and 28 of lactation.
The effects of cannulation have not been widely studied in pigs. It is possible that digestive processes may be affected due to alterations in the gut micro-ecosystem and anaerobic conditions at the cannulation site. In studies where cannulated animals are used for digestibility measurements over the total tract as well as at the terminal ileum, it is important to determine if the process of cannulation can affect the results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cannulation on digestion in the pig by determining total tract digestibility of components from diets containing different raw materials (A-E) using both intact pigs and pigs fitted with simple T-pieces at the terminal ileum.
Variability in the nutritive value of wheat is established particularly with young poultry and pigs. However, underlying causes have yet to be established unequivocally. Numerous reports attempting to relate variability to varieties have not proved convincing due to interactions with environmental factors. Furthermore reliance on name alone is not appropriate in attempting to differentiate between varieties as it would give no indication of genetic relationships. One promising approach, is the use of near-isogenic lines, which differ in only one key characteristic whose nutritional significance can thus be examined. This was the basis for establishing the negative effects of the IBIR rye translocation and hard endosperm texture, together with interactions, with poultry (Short et al., 2000). Crucially it was confirmed that investigating the IBIR translocation should not proceed without knowledge of endosperm texture, a requirement overlooked by Lewis et al. (1999). The current programme sought to examine the IBIR translocation and endosperm texture in terms of performance of piglets from 15kg fed diets based on identical formulations but containing wheats of known background; presence of xylanase was the second variable.