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The epidemic cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was examined in two areas in eastern Finland over a period of 15 years, 1972–87. The C. pneumoniae IgG antibody prevalence was determined with 5-year intervals in a random sample of the population aged 25–59 years. The total number of sera studied using immunofluorescence was 2387. In 1972 the antibody prevalence was 57% and it increased to 66% in 1977. Over the next 5 years the prevalence decreased to 44% in 1982, but by 1987 it had again increased to 59%. The temporal variation in prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0·001) and similar for both genders. Throughout the observation period the overall prevalence Mas 7–11% higher in men than in women (P < 0·01). The antibody prevalence increased with age, being the highest among the oldest study subjects of both genders. The periods of high and low prevalence alternated in an epidemic cycle (P < 0·001) of about 10 years
The epidemic cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in eastern Finland, 1972–1987 Fig 2. For the top right-hand graph of the four shown, the legend should show: urban. … rural, –––; all, ——. The legend for the remaining three graphs is correct.
The aims of the study were to provide information that will contribute to conceptualising what is called ‘dietary Westernisation’, and to provide an example of measuring it on an individual level.
Food consumption frequency and demographic data on adults in Mauritius were examined in 1988, 1992 and 1998. In 1992, a 24-hour recall was also included. The cross-sectional samples consisted of 1115 (age 25–74 years) Mauritians in 1987/88, 1917 (age 30–74 years) in 1992 and 2239 (age 20–74 years) in 1998. Principal components analysis was carried out on daily consumption frequencies of 10 indicator foods (white rice, white bakery bread, pulses, processed meat, poultry, fresh/frozen fish, butter, margarine, whole milk and skimmed/low-fat milk). Correlations between dietary patterns and selected food consumption frequencies were examined in each survey year.
Four dietary patterns were identified as being related to dietary Westernisation. The Traditional dietary pattern was characterised by higher consumption frequencies of Indian breads, salted/smoked fish and sugar-sweetened tea. The Western dietary pattern was characterised by higher consumption frequencies of cakes/pastries, meat and many Western fast foods like burgers, but, surprisingly, also by brown bread, breakfast cereals and salad. The Bread/butter dietary pattern predominantly described more frequent consumption of bread compared with rice. The Margarine/milk dietary pattern was inconsistently related with staple foods. Younger, educated and wealthier Mauritians appeared to adopt Western dietary patterns earlier.
This study suggests that relatively few indicator foods are needed for measuring dietary Westernisation. Dietary Westernisation in a non-Western country may also include shifts towards voluntary consumption of healthier foods.
The overall objective of this study was to evaluate and provide evidence and recommendations on current published literature about diet and lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Epidemiological and experimental studies, focusing on nutritional intervention in the prevention of type 2 diabetes are used to make disease-specific recommendations. Long-term cohort studies are given the most weight as to strength of evidence available.
Setting and subjects:
Numerous clinical trials and cohort studies in low, middle and high income countries are evaluated regarding recommendations for dietary prevention of type 2 diabetes. These include, among others, the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, US Diabetes Prevention Program, Da Qing Study; Pima Indian Study; Iowa Women's Health Study; and the study of the US Male Physicians.
There is convincing evidence for a decreased risk of diabetes in adults who are physically active and maintain a normal body mass index (BMI) throughout adulthood, and in overweight adults with impaired glucose tolerance who lose weight voluntarily. An increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes is associated with overweight and obesity; abdominal obesity; physical inactivity; and maternal diabetes. It is probable that a high intake of saturated fats and intrauterine growth retardation also contribute to an increased risk, while non-starch polysaccharides are likely to be associated with a decreased risk. From existing evidence it is also possible that omega-3 fatty acids, low glycaemic index foods and exclusive breastfeeding may play a protective role, and that total fat intake and trans fatty acids may contribute to the risk. However, insufficient evidence is currently available to provide convincing proof.
Based on the strength of available evidence regarding diet and lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, it is recommended that a normal weight status in the lower BMI range (BMI 21–23) and regular physical activity be maintained throughout adulthood; abdominal obesity be prevented; and saturated fat intake be less than 7% of the total energy intake.