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The intense interest in production of heteroepitaxial quaternary structures of Gax In1-x Asy p1-y on InP for electro-optical telecommunications systems has Stimulated development of non-destructive techniques for their analysis. One of the most important is double axis X-ray diffractometry, a technique originally developed in the 1920s but only now coming into widespread use as a routine assessment tool. The basic theory is well treated by James and discussion of alignment errors are found in references cited by Fewster in a paper describing alignment procedures for the automated diffractometer manufactured by Bede Scientific Instruments of Durham, The application to III-V systems has been discussed by Tanner, Barnett and Bill.
We report the implementation of two new methods of accurate comparison of lattice parameters against a silicon standard using a high resolution X-ray diffractometer. The double axis method uses a specimen rotation stage which set the limit of reproducibility (at 3 sigma) to 3 parts in 105. An application of the technique is illustrated in measurements of the zinc concentration in Cd1-xZnx Te to an accuracy of 0.1%. The triple axis technique uses beam conditioner and analyser crystals to define the incident and diffracted wave vectors. In measurement of the lattice parameters of InAs, we found a precision of 1 part in 105 and traceable accuracy of a several parts in 105.
We discuss the use of Fourier transform techniques to extract layer thickness from the interference fringes observed in high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curves of pseudomorphic HEMT structures. The interference structure is extracted by cubic spline fitting to the extrema of the data, thereby obtaining a background envelope which is used to normalise the data. The resulting constant background is subtracted from the data and the residual Fourier transformed. Auto correlation of the residual significantly improves the result from noisy data. Satisfactory results are obtained only when the Bragg peak from the substrate is windowed out. With a limited dynamic and angular range, there is often insufficient data to separate the two closely spaced periods arising from the total layer thickness and that excluding the quantum well. The result then corresponds to the average of these two thicknesses.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with antipsychotic treatment. RE KINECT (NCT03062033), a real-world study of outpatients prescribed antipsychotics, was designed to identify the presence of possible TD and characterize the impact of involuntary movements on functioning and quality of life. Data from RE-KINECT were used to compare the impact of possible TD in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder [SZD] versus mood/other psychiatric disorders [Mood].
Adults with ≥3months of lifetime exposure to antipsychotics and ≥1 psychiatric disorder were recruited. The presence of possible TD was based on clinicians’ observation of involuntary movements in 4 body regions (head, trunk, upper extremities, and lower extremities). Baseline outcomes included demographics, medication history, location/severity of abnormal movements, impact of abnormal movements on daily activities, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the EuroQoL 5-Dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L).
Of 204 patients with clinician-confirmed possible TD, 111 (54.4%) had a SZD diagnosis and 93 (45.6%) had a mood/other psychiatric diagnosis. Significant differences found between groups (Mood vs SZD) included: mean age (56.9 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0263); male sex (33.3% vs 62.2%; P<0.0001); African-American race (7.5% vs 26.1%; P=0.0005); mean lifetime exposure to antipsychotics (9.5 vs 19.5 years; P<0.0001); and percentage of patients currently taking ≥2 psychiatric medications (93.5% vs 79.3%; P=0.0093). Based on clinician observation, there were no significant differences between diagnosis groups in the number of body regions impacted by abnormal movements, maximum severity score across all 4 regions, or patient awareness of possible TD. Over 30% of patients in both groups reported that involuntary movements had “some” or “a lot” of impact on their ability to continue usual activities, be productive, and socialize. No significant differences between the diagnosis groups (Mood vs SZD) were found for mean SDS total score (12.8 vs 10.8), SDS domain scores (work/school [4.1 vs 4.2], social life [4.3 vs 3.7], family life [4.1 vs 3.5]), EQ-5D-5L utility score (0.68 vs 0.74), or EQ-5D-5L health state VAS (64.8 vs 68.5).
In this cohort of outpatients with possible TD, those with Mood disorders were more likely to be older, female, and white than patients with SZD. The ability to function and quality of life were equally impaired in both groups. Further studies on the impact of TD are needed.
Funding Acknowledgements: Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
The timing of critical events like mating, migration, and development has noticeably and recently shifted in many populations of diverse organisms. Here, we report a change in the breeding phenology of giant waterbugs, Belostoma flumineum Say (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae), in the northeastern United States. Waterbugs collected in 2005 and 2006 exhibited previously typical patterns of mating and reproduction: two annual reproductive peaks in which overwintered adults mated in the spring and young adults from a new generation mated in the fall. In 2012 and 2015, despite similar sampling effort, we detected no fall breeding activity in the study area. Reproductive behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions was also different between the earlier (2005 and 2006) and recent (2012 and 2015) years: waterbugs collected in recent years exhibited significant delays in reproduction (>30 days) under similar photoperiod and thermal conditions. We discuss potential causes of this dramatic change in reproductive behaviour, such as climate change, as well as possible negative impacts of the absence of fall reproduction on populations of B. flumineum in the study region.
In addition to assessing rate and extent of gas production from fermenting forages in vitro with rumen micro-organisms, gas production methods (e.g. Theodorou et at, 1994) may be used also to study the degradation kinetics of forage dry matter and its fractions. As the substrate dry matter can be lost only through fermentation or solution, this removes the error inherent in the polyester bag method caused by fine particle losses from bags being deemed part of the ‘soluble’ fraction.
The pressure transducer technique (PTT) of Theodorou et al. (1994) was used to measure gas production from nine tropical forage samples (Table 1). Nine bottles were prepared from each of the forage samples. Two bottles of each forage were harvested after 8, 24 and 48 h of incubation and a further three bottles at 72 h, to determine dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) losses. The same nine forages were assessed using the polyester bag method (Mehrez and Ørskov, 1977) to obtain DM and OM disappearance after rumen incubations of 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h. The soluble fraction was determined by hand washing. The reproducibility of measured losses, at given times, was examined using concordance (rc) correlation (Lin, 1989) and mean square prediction error (MSPE, Bibby and Toutenberg, 1977). Also the simple exponential model was used to estimate the fractional rate of DM degradation (kd) and asymptote A (%) for each forage and the values obtained using PTT (kd,ptt) and in situ (kd,bag) compared using rc and MSPE.
There is currently no standard, objective definition of selective eating. This is partially because normative values for the number of different foods eaten by US children have not been established. The present study objectives were to: (i) perform exploratory analysis on the number of different foods, beverages, and total foods and beverages consumed by US children aged 2–18 years over a year’s time, and the types of foods consumed by those in the lowest 2·5th percentile; and (ii) determine whether those values differ according to demographic variables and weight status.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional FFQ data. Differences in number of foods, beverages, and total foods and beverages were analysed using one-way ANOVA.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003–2006.
Non-institutionalized US children aged 2–18 years.
The mean number of different foods and beverages consumed across the sample was 83·2. There were no significant differences by gender, BMI, race or food security categories. There was a difference in beverage consumption by age category, with children aged 12–18 years consuming a significantly higher number of different beverages compared with each of the other two age categories (i.e. 2–5 years and 6–11 years).
Normative values for the number of foods and drinks reported as consumed by children over the past 12 months may be a useful measure for researchers. Future research validating this measure is needed before cut-off values can be used to develop a definition of selective eating.
Seasonal variation in feed supply, is recognised as an important constraint to animal production in the tropics. However, day to day fluctuations in quantity and quality of feed are also common in stall-fed animals on smallholder dairy farms. Opportunistic use of feeds available in small amounts, such as residues from food crops, weeds and purchased fodder is common. In addition, amounts of cut green fodder may be reduced or absent on some days. Ruminant animals require time to adapt to a given feed and it might be expected that frequent and abrupt changes of this type might have a negative effect on feed utilisation and animal performance. The objective of the experiment was to determine whether the way in which two fodders, with significantly different DM, CP and fibre contents, were offered, would influence digestibility and liveweight gain in cross-bred cattle.
A major constraint on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya is inadequate feed supply resulting in low productivity. In Kiambu district of the Central Highlands, principal feed resources are cultivated Napier grass, roadside grass and fodder from maize, including stover and higher quality thinnings cut during the growing period. An average farmer in Kiambu owns 0.8 ha of which 0.19 and 0.17 ha are dedicated to Napier and maize cultivation, respectively, and 2.2 cows producing 5.8 kg milk/day (Staal et al. 1998). Meeting the feed requirements of the dairy animals, while maintaining food production is already a challenge. There are indications that the maize crop will become increasingly important as a source of fodder (Staal et al. 1998). Methu (1998) showed that by planting 4 rather 2 maize seeds per hole, 1.9 t DM/ha of thinnings, with high energy and N content could be harvested without affecting significantly the yields of stover or grain. The present study explored further the potential of increasing production of good quality thinnings without jeopardising grain yield in a series of on-farm trials.
Sanda et al. (1999) studied the effects on crossbred steer liveweight gain of alternating the same quantities of napier grass and barley straw at five day intervals over a 40 day period. These animals lost significantly more weight (p<0.05) than animals on one and ten day frequencies of alternation and those receiving the same quantities of the two feeds mixed together at each meal. These responses could not be explained by differences in in vivo digestibility or intake. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are gradual changes in the rumen environment as animals adapt to the intake of a given forage and that, during this adaptive phase nitrogen is not used efficiently, which could explain the poor performance.
Objectives: Total intracranial volume (TICV) is an important control variable in brain–behavior research, yet its calculation has challenges. Manual TICV (Manual) is labor intensive, and automatic methods vary in reliability. To identify an accurate automatic approach we assessed the reliability of two FreeSurfer TICV metrics (eTIV and Brainmask) relative to manual TICV. We then assessed how these metrics alter associations between left entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume and story retention. Methods: Forty individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 40 non-PD peers completed a brain MRI and memory testing. Manual metrics were compared to FreeSurfer’s Brainmask (a skull strip mask with total volume of gray, white, and most cerebrospinal fluid) and eTIV (calculated using the transformation matrix into Talairach space). Volumes were compared with two-way interclass correlations and dice similarity indices. Associations between ERC volume and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory retention were examined with and without correction using each TICV method. Results: Brainmask volumes were larger and eTIV volumes smaller than Manual. Both automated metrics correlated highly with Manual. All TICV metrics explained additional variance in the ERC-Memory relationship, although none were significant. Brainmask explained slightly more variance than other methods. Conclusions: Our findings suggest Brainmask is more reliable than eTIV for TICV correction in brain-behavioral research. (JINS, 2018, 24, 206–211)
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study is to develop an effective and efficient STI preventive intervention among college students following the principles and phases of MOST. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION As part of the preparation phase, an explicit conceptual model, drawing heavily on theory and prior research, was used to translate the existing science into 5 candidate intervention components (ie, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, expectancies, perceived benefits of protective behavioral strategies, and self-efficacy). For the optimization phase, in Fall 2016 all first-year students (n=3547) from 4 universities were recruited to participate. Students were randomized to 1 of 32 different experimental conditions that included a combination of the candidate intervention components. Component effectiveness was evaluated using data from an immediate post-intervention survey on respective component mediators (eg, alcohol and sex-related descriptive norms). After a second factorial experiment (Fall 2017), only those intervention components that meet the pre-specified criteria of day ≥0.15 will be included in the optimized intervention. The evaluation phase will evaluate the effectiveness of the optimized STI preventive intervention via a randomized-control trial (Fall 2018). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary results from the first factorial experiment suggest that descriptive norms and injunctive norms intervention components were significantly effective in reducing post-intervention perceived alcohol prevalence (β=−0.28, p<0.001) and approval of alcohol (β=−0.33, p<0.001), and sex-related norms (β=−0.23, p<.001). These results, in combination with process data, are being used to inform revisions of the intervention components to be included in a second factorial screening experiment. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study demonstrates how an iterative approach to engineering an STI preventive intervention using MOST can affect the behaviors of college students and serve as a foundation for other translational science.
Many of the ice-coring objectives in the Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) Long Range Science Plan, such as those in the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS) 2k array and 40k network, are attainable in many locations with an intermediate depth drill (IDD) that can collect core from a fluid-filled hole down to 1500 m depth. The Ice Drilling Design and Operations (IDDO) group has designed and is in the process of building an agile IDD to meet this objective. The drill tent, power distribution and core-processing systems are an integral part of the IDD, which can be deployed by small aircraft and assembled by hand to minimize logistic requirements. The new drill system will be ready for testing in Greenland beginning in late spring 2014. The first production drilling is scheduled for the 2014/15 field season at the South Pole.
The Blue Ice Drill (BID) is a large-diameter agile drill system designed by the Ice Drilling Design and Operations group of the University of Wisconsin–Madison to quickly core-clean 241 mm diameter ice samples from near-surface sites. It consists of a down-hole motor/gear reducer rotating a coring cutter and core barrel inside an outer barrel for efficient cuttings transport in solid ice. A variable-frequency drive and custom control box regulates electrical power to the drill. Torque reaction is accomplished on the surface via handles attached to a torsion stem. Core recovery is achieved with either core dogs in the sonde or with a separate core recovery tool. All down-hole tools are suspended on a collapsible tripod via ropes running on a capstan winch. The BID is operated by a minimum of two people and has been used successfully during two seasons of coring on a blue ice area of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. An updated version of the drill system, BID-Deep, has been designed to recover cores to depths up to 200 m.
Objectives: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. Methods: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk index. Participants underwent brain imaging (T1 and T2 FLAIR). Trained raters measured total and regional leukoaraiosis (periventricular, deep subcortical, and infracortical). Results: Hierarchical regressions revealed that more severe cardiovascular risk was related to worse executive functioning, processing speed, and delayed verbal recall in both Parkinson patients and controls. More severe cardiovascular risk was related to worse language functioning in the PD group, but not controls. In contrast, leukoaraiosis related to both cardiovascular risk and executive functioning for controls, but not the PD group. Conclusions: Overall, results revealed that PD and cardiovascular risk factors are independent risk factors for cognitive impairment. Generally, the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on cognition is similar in PD patients and controls. (JINS, 2017, 23, 322–331)
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Auxology, the study of physical growth (from auxein, to increase), has long been pressed into service as a measure of human welfare. In the sixteenth century Levinus Lemnius, doctor and later priest in the Low Countries, castigated “schoolmasters and others that take upon them to teach and boord young boyes (and) pinch their poore Pupils and Boorders by the belly, and allow them meate neither sufficient nor yet wholesome.” “Whereby it cometh to passe,” he continued,
That in growth they seldome come to any personable stature, to the use of their full powers, to perfect strength and firmity of their members, or to any handsome feature or composition of bodily proportion: and the cause is for that in their tender and growing age, being kept under by famine and skanted of common meate and drinke, their natural moisture which requireth continuall cherishing and maintenance, was skanted and bebarred of his due nourishment and competent allowance [English translation of 1633, The Touchstone of Complexions, original 1561; see Tanner, 1981: 25].
Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are characterized by short trees, often twisted with multiple stems, with many stems per ground area, a large stem diameter to height ratio, and small, often thick leaves. These forests exhibit high root to shoot ratio, with a moderate leaf area index, low above-ground production, low leaf nutrient concentrations and often with luxuriant epiphytic growth. These traits of TMCF are caused by climatic conditions not geological substrate, and are particularly associated with frequent or persistent fog and low cloud. There are several reasons why fog might result in these features. Firstly, the fog and clouds reduce the amount of light received per unit area of ground and as closed-canopy forests absorb most of the light that reaches them the reduction in the total amount of light reduces growth. Secondly, the rate of photosynthesis per leaf area declines in comparison with that in the lowlands, which leads to less carbon fixation. Nitrogen supply limits growth in several of the few TMCFs where it has been investigated experimentally. High root : shoot biomass and production ratios are common in TMCF, and soils are often wet which may contribute to N limitation. Further study is needed to clarify the causes of several key features of TMCF ecosystems including high tree diameter : height ratio.
We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20–30 m s−1 on our survey targets.