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We tested the applicability of the “passive sampling” hypothesis and theory of island biogeography (TIB) for explaining the diversity of forest-dwelling carabid assemblages (Carabidae: Coleoptera) on 30 forested islands (0.2–980.7 ha) in Lac la Ronge and the adjacent mainland in Saskatchewan, Canada. Species richness per unit area increased with distance to mainland with diversity being highest on the most isolated islands. We detected neither a positive species-area relationship, nor significant differences in species richness among island size classes, or between islands and the mainland. Nonetheless, carabid assemblages distinctly differed on islands <1 ha in area and gradually approached the structure of mainland assemblages as island area increased. Small islands were characterised by abundant populations of small-bodied, winged species and few if any large-bodied, flightless species like Carabus taedatus Fabricius. Our findings suggest that neither the “passive sampling” hypothesis nor the theory of island biogeography adequately explain carabid beetle diversity patterns observed among islands in Lac la Ronge. Instead, we hypothesise that population processes such as higher extinction rates of large-bodied, flightless species and the associated release of smaller-bodied, flying species from intra-guild predation on small islands contribute to observed differences in the structure of carabid assemblages between islands.
• Assess the strengths, weaknesses and practical implications of strategic CSR within the wider CSR field.
• Understand the different types of arguments – theoretical, empirical and normative – that can be used in support of a strategic understanding of CSR.
• Distinguish between different ways of arguing for the strategic value of CSR, including corporate social responsiveness and the business case, and to be able to reflect on their respective strengths and weaknesses and how they can be combined.
• Understand why and how it is useful to consider Porter and Kramer's notion of shared value not as a standalone concept, but one that should be combined with other perspectives in order to get a fuller picture of corporate responsibility.
The Strategic Turn in CSR
Since the early 2000s, the discourse on corporate social responsibility has taken what might be called a strategic turn. Not only ‘the usual CSR supporters’ but also some former believers in the neoclassical dictum that ‘the business of business is business’ have started to embrace the positive, productive, innovative, value-creating aspects of social responsibility. In the wake of insidious corporate scandals – ranging from Enron in 2001 to Volkswagen in 2015 – and, in particular, the events surrounding the global financial crisis of 2008 and beyond, the proposition that we can rely on the ‘invisible hand’ of the market to secure beneficial outcomes for society does not seem very comforting to many. In 2005 it was famously declared in a critical survey in The Economist that the advocates of CSR seemed to have won ‘the battle of ideas’ (Crook, 2005), and it has been suggested that we have reached a point where it is no longer a matter of whether but only of how companies are to engage in social responsibility (Smith, 2003). These conditions would seem to call for new, more accommodating economic approaches to CSR. It is in this context that strategic CSR has emerged.
We demonstrate that the second-Stokes output from a diamond Raman laser, pumped by a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser, can be used to efficiently excite red-emitting dyes by two-photon excitation at 1,080 nm and beyond. We image HeLa cells expressing red fluorescent protein, as well as dyes such as Texas Red and Mitotracker Red. We demonstrate the potential for simultaneous two-color, two-photon imaging with this laser by using the residual pump beam for excitation of a green-emitting dye. We demonstrate this for the combination of Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor 568. Because the Raman laser extends the wavelength range of the Ti:Sapphire laser, resulting in a laser system tunable to 680–1,200 nm, it can be used for two-photon excitation of a large variety and combination of dyes.
We used laboratory and field feeding trials to investigate adult carabid
beetle preferences for three brassicaceous weed species (rapeseed, wild
mustard, and field pennycress) that are pests in canola. All carabid species
preferred seeds of rapeseed most and those of field pennycress least and
showed intermediate preference for wild mustard seeds. Beetles highly
preferred imbibed seeds of all three weed species. Activity–density of
carabids and mean weed seed removal were highly correlated in field plots of
canola, with activity–density accounting for 67% of the observed variation
in seed removal. Our study indicates that seed consumption among carabids is
influenced by several factors, including weed species, physiological state
of seeds, and carabid activity–density. Carabid seed predation is
significant in canola agroecosystems; therefore, understanding these
influences has implications for ecological weed management.
Ground beetles are postdispersal weed seed predators, yet their role in
consuming buried seeds is not well studied. We conducted greenhouse
experiments to investigate how seed burial affects consumption of weed seeds
(volunteer canola) by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Seed
burial depth influenced seed consumption rates as demonstrated by a
significant interaction between seed burial depth, carabid species, and
gender of the carabid tested. We observed higher seed consumption by females
of all species, and greater consumption of seeds scattered on the soil
surface compared with seeds buried at any depth. However, there was evidence
of seed consumption at all depths. Adults of Pterostichus
melanarius (Illiger) and Harpalus affinis
(Schrank) consumed more buried seeds than did those of Amara
littoralis Mannerheim. Agricultural practices, such as tillage,
bury seeds at different depths and based on the results of this study, these
practices may reduce seed consumption by carabids. Soil conservation
practices that reduce tillage (conservation or zero tillage) will favor
greater weed seed predation due, in part, to the high availability of seeds
at the soil surface or at shallow soil depths.
Background: It has been hypothesized that [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF) uptake imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) binds to hydroxyapatite molecules expressed in regions with active calcification. Therefore, we aimed to validate NaF as a marker of hydroxyapatite expression in high-risk carotid plaque. Methods: Eleven patients (69 ± 5 years, 3 female) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited for NaF PET/CT. One patient received a second contralateral endarterectomy; two patients were excluded (intolerance to contrast media and PET/CT misalignment). The bifurcation of the common carotid was used as the reference point; NaF uptake (tissue to blood ratio - TBR) was measured at every PET slice extending 2 cm above and below the bifurcation. Excised plaque was immunostained with Goldner’s Trichrome and whole-slide digitized images were used to quantify hydroxyapatite expression. Pathology was co-registered with PET. Results: NaF uptake was related to the extent of hydroxyapatite expression (r=0.45, p<0.001). Upon classifying bilateral plaque for symptomatology, symptomatic plaque was associated with cerebrovascular events (3.75±1.1 TBR, n=9) and had greater NaF uptake than clinically silent asymptomatic plaque (2.79±0.6 TBR, n=11) (p=0.04). Conclusion: NaF uptake is related to hydroxyapatite expression and is increased in plaque associated with cerebrovascular events. NaF may serve as a novel biomarker of active calcification and plaque vulnerability.
Background: Whole-slide scanning of tissue sections spatially informed by imaging studies offers the opportunity to reconstruct specimens for co-registration to 3D imaging data. Digital image analysis algorithms can be designed to analyze and reconstruct such specimens via electronic “pipelines”. Methods: A goal of the Canadian Atherosclerosis Imaging Network (CAIN) is to improve the assessment of carotid atheromatous disease through studies that inform clinical imaging with gold-standard data (plaque pathology). To achieve this, sectioned atheromas are manually annotated and analyzed by electronic algorithm for pathological features of interest. Resulting images are then reassembled in 3D for registration to ultrasound, CT, PET-CT and MRI studies. Results: Carotid endarterectomy specimens were sub-serially sectioned, stained, digitized and annotated manually and by electronic algorithms. Resulting 2D images were successfully rendered, reassembled and analyzed in 3D using ex-vivo micro-CT as a spatial reference. Furthermore, histology quantification using colour deconvolution was found to be preferred over hue-saturation-intensity methods 94.7-100% of the time in a blinded multiple rater study. Conclusion: Automated “pipelines” greatly facilitate 3D reconstruction in comparison to traditional slice-by-slice methods. Transformations spatially guided by pre-existing imaging data is not only faster, but has superior objectivity and fidelity. With embedded annotations, 3D pathology maps become a rich, micron-level, permanent digital pathological database for correlative studies.
We report on the analysis of virtual powder-diffraction patterns from serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data collected at an X-ray free-electron laser. Different approaches to binning and normalizing these patterns are discussed with respect to the microstructural characteristics which each highlights. Analysis of SFX data from a powder of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 in this way finds evidence of other trace phases in its microstructure which was not detectable in a standard powder-diffraction measurement. Furthermore, a comparison between two virtual powder pattern integration strategies is shown to yield different diffraction peak broadening, indicating sensitivity to different types of microstrain. This paper is a first step in developing new data analysis methods for microstructure characterization from serial crystallography data.
1.1. The work for the paper was carried out by the authors as members of the Bonus and Valuation Research Group of the Faculty of Actuaries. The previous paper produced as a result of work done in the Bonus Research Group (Studies of Reversionary Bonus using a Model Office, TFA 37, 91) used a deterministic model office. Future interest rates and returns from equity investment were assumed known and the effects on reversionary bonus of variations in the valuation bases, rates of expansion and inflation of expenses were examined. The assumption of an exact knowledge of future investment returns was a great simplification and begged many of the important questions facing a life office actuary. In this paper the Research Group has paid attention to the change in the value of the assets under variations in financial conditions.
Roffelsen is an early Younge phase mortuary component in southwestern Ontario. The single burial feature is a pit containing the articulated skeletons of seven successively buried individuals, ranging in age from a few months to late middle age. All had been stripped of soft tissues, except for the connecting tissues that maintained their articulation. Most also had a disk cut from the cranium and a hole drilled near bregma. All but the infant display various forms of developmental failure of the outer and middle ear and the petrous portion of the temporal bone. The pit was apparently the burial facility for an extended family with significant hearing impairments. This disability may have limited their interaction with neighboring communities, perhaps even playing a role in their eventual disappearance as a separate community.
It is unrealistic to achieve high-resolution biodiversity inventories required to support local conservation strategies over large areas; however, benchmark associations between arthropods and ecosystem classification can support landscape scale biomonitoring. We investigated habitat associations of ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae), staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in three forest ecosystems in northwestern Alberta, Canada and also studied the effect of variation in depth of pitfall trap installation on catch. Composition and diversity of all three taxa were correlated with the ecosystem classification map, and 20 species were strong indicators of particular habitats. The black spruce (Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg; Pinaceae) bog supported fewer species and individuals of beetles but this trend was not observed for spiders because of natural history traits associated with their performance in this environment. Pitfall trapping biases were constant among habitats enabling proper comparison of ground-dwelling invertebrate assemblages. Three species of beetles (Agonum retractum LeConte (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Pterostichus brevicornis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Quedius velox Smetana (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)) were disproportionally active beneath the soil surface, as catches were greater in pitfall traps with the lip situated 15–25 cm below the soil surface. Thus, even highly standardised trap placement will influence the concept of biodiversity achieved through pitfall trapping, because some target organisms are disproportionately active in subterranean zones.
Only about 19 of the 70 or so skeletons excavated at Cerro Portezuelo were brought back to UCLA, and adequate information is lacking for most of these. A detailed analysis of the excavation and curation records, as well as of the skeletons, was conducted in an attempt to identify their contexts and to evaluate their potential for contribution to our knowledge of the Cerro Portezuelo community. Although subadult dental health was good, adult levels of caries and antemortem loss were comparable to those of other Mesoamerican populations. Oxygen-isotope data suggest only limited long-distance immigration into the area. Further interpretation, however, is hampered by poor contextual data and the inability to assign most individuals to a specific period.