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Clinical benefits of antipsychotic treatment depend on the efficacy and on the patients’ tolerability and compliance. To reduce patient initiated treatment discontinuation, timely detection of treatment emergent side effects is essential. The Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effects scale for clozapine (GASS-C) is a recently developed instrument to measure subjectively experienced clozapine side effects.
Timely detection of unreported clozapine related side-effects.
Documenting the prevalence of side-effects in schizophrenia or chronic psychotic disorder with the Serbian version of the GASS-C.
The sample included 95 in and outpatients with schizophrenia or chronic psychotic disorder. All subjects filled out the Serbian version of the GASS-C and a sociodemographic questionnaire.
The median age was 46.1 years; 53.7% of subjects were male. Clozapine doses ranged from 25 to 423 mg. Drowsiness (78%) was the most commonly reported side-effect. Overall, 16.8% of the patients added other complaints, such as headache, pain, hand or leg numbing or nightmares. According to GASS-C total score categorization , only 4.2. % of subjects were rated with severe side-effects, while 14% of themselves rated their symptoms as severe or distressing. More side effects were reported by female patients and by inpatients. Only a weak positive correlation was found between the severity of the side effects and clozapine dosage.
We found the GASS-C to be a useful instrument that elicits both unknown side-effects and patients rating of their severity. Side effects did not clearly relate to the prescribed dose. Future research should include the relation of clozapine plasma levels with side effects assessed with GASS-C.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Even though the Internet is accessible to everybody, the studies show that it is mostly used by people younger than 35 and especially by those younger than 18. Over 60% of the adolescents spend about 1-3 hours a day while 77% of them say that they spend more time on the Internet than they used to.
The analyses of the behavior of the adolescents on the Internet.
To determine how the adolescents connect to the Internet, how much time they spend on-line and how they spend their time on Facebook.
The cross-sectional study included 145 subjects (43.4% of whom were female and 56.6% male) whose average age was 16.7 ± 0.46. The examinees attended the Electro-technical school, Agro-chemical school and the Grammar school in Nis.
All of the examinees access the Internet from their PCs while 41.4% of them also use their mobile phones in order to access the Internet. Less than a half (44.1%) spend more than 5 hours on the Internet. They spend about 3.81+-4.32 hours on Facebook and only 2.1% of them do not have Facebook accounts. 76.6 % of the examinees use mostly this social network for chating while a considerable percentage of them (14.6%) of them would spend more time on-line if they could.
Our results show that the adolescents spend most of their spare time on the Internet. The fact is that they belong to the group of vulnerable population, therefore the studies that deal with their behavior on the Internet are not only needed but also necessary.
Late life depression is still not well recognized. As depression increased risk for mortality and morbidity in elderly,it is necessary to have efficient instrument for detecting and measuring depression in this population. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is a screening test for depression in late life but it is not use in Serbian erderly population.
To show preliminary results of using the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in Serbian elderly population.
We wanted to estimate whether this scale correlate with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) which has been validated in Serbia.
We studied 248 pariticipants (40,3% were male,59,7% female) age 65 and older. Mean age for the whole sample was 70,87 ± 5,79. Hamilton depression scale, BDI and GDS-15 we used for assessing depressive symptomathology and two psychiatrist confirmed diagnosis of depression. According to inclusion criteria,102 participants met criteria for depression (experimental group) and 146 were in control group.
We found statistically significant difference in mean GDS-15 score between experimental (4,83 ± 4,93) and control group (1,51 ± 1,42) and no gender differences were found according to GDS-15 mean score. Significant difference (p≤ 0,05) was found on GDS item 11(Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now?),where woman scored higher in control group. Strong positive correlation was found between BDI and GDS-15 mean scores (r=0,863; p< 0,001).
The preliminary results confirm that GDS may be accepted as useful tool for measurement depression in Serbian elderly population. This may facilitate recognition and treatment of depression in elderly.