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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Declining mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been observed concurrent with a reduced incidence due to effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, with IPD now increasing due to serotype replacement, we undertook a statistical analysis to estimate the trend in all-cause 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) in the North East of England (NEE) following IPD. Clinical, microbiological and demographic data were obtained for all laboratory-confirmed IPD cases (April 2006–March 2016) and the adjusted association between CFR and epidemiological year estimated using logistic regression. Of the 2510 episodes of IPD included in the analysis, 486 died within 30 days of IPD (CFR 19%). Increasing age, male sex, a diagnosis of septicaemia, being in ⩾1 clinical risk groups, alcohol abuse and individual serotypes were independently associated with increased CFR. A significant decline in CFR over time was observed following adjustment for these significant predictors (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.89–0.98; P = 0.003). A small but significant decline in 30-day all-cause CFR following IPD has been observed in the NEE. Nonetheless, certain population groups remain at increased risk of dying following IPD. Despite the introduction of effective vaccines, further strategies to reduce the ongoing burden of mortality from IPD are needed.
Norovirus is a predominant cause of infectious gastroenteritis in countries worldwide [1–5]. It accounts for approximately 50% of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and >90% of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks [6, 7]. The incubation period ranges between 10 and 48 h and illness duration is generally 1–3 days with self-limiting symptoms; however, this duration is often longer (e.g. 4–6 days) in vulnerable populations such as hospital patients or young children [2, 8]. Symptomatic infection of norovirus presents as acute vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps and nausea, with severe vomiting and diarrhoea (non-bloody) being most common [2, 5, 9].
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
Introduction: The field of Clinical Informatics (CI) and specifically the electronic health record, has been identified as a key facilitator to achieve a sustainable evidence-based healthcare system for the future. International graduate medical education programs have been challenged to ensure their trainees are provided with appropriate skills to deliver effective and efficient healthcare in an evolving environment. This study explored how international Emergency Medicine (EM) specialist training standards address training in relevant areas of CI. Methods: A list of categories of CI competencies relative to EM was developed following a thematic review of published references documenting CI curriculum and competencies. Publically available, published documents outlining core content, curriculum and competencies from international organizations responsible for specialty graduate medical education and/or credentialing in EM for the United States, Canada, Australasia, the United Kingdom and Europe. These EM training standards were reviewed to identify inclusion of topics related to the relevant categories of CI competencies. Results: A total of 23 EM curriculum documents were included in the thematic analysis. Curricula content related to critical appraisal/evidence based medicine, leadership, quality improvement and privacy/security were included in all EM curricula. The CI topics related to fundamental computer skills, computerized provider order entry and patient-centered informatics were only included in the EM curricula documents for the United States and were absent for each other organization. Conclusion: There is variation in the CI related content of the international EM specialty training standards which were reviewed. Given the increasing importance of CI in the future delivery of healthcare, organizations responsible for training and credentialing specialist emergency physicians must ensure their training standards incorporate relevant CI content, thus ensuring their trainees gain competence in essential aspects of CI.
Introduction: Emergency Department Overcrowding (EDOC) is a multifactorial issue that leads to Access Block for patients needing emergency care. Identified as a national problem, patients presenting to a Canadian Emergency Department (ED) at a time of overcrowding have higher rates of admission to hospital and increased seven-day mortality. Using the well accepted input-throughput-output model to study EDOC, current research has focused on throughput as a measure of patient flow, reported as ED length of stay (LOS). In fact, ED LOS and ED beds occupied by inpatients are two “extremely important indicators of EDOC identified by a 2005 survey of Canadian ED directors. One proposed solution to improve ED throughput is to utilize a physician at triage (PAT) to rapidly assess newly arriving patients. In 2017, a pilot PAT program was trialed at Kelowna General Hospital (KGH), a tertiary care hospital, as part of a PDSA cycle. The aim was to mitigate EDOC by improving ED throughput by the end of 2018, to meet the national targets for ED LOS suggested in the 2013 CAEP position statement. Methods: During the fiscal periods 1-6 (April 1 to September 7, 2017) a PAT shift occurred daily from 1000-2200, over four long weekends. ED LOS, time to inpatient bed, time to physician initial assessment (PIA), number of British Columbia Ambulance Service (BCAS) offload delays, and number of patients who left without being seen (LWBS) were extracted from an administrative database. Results were retrospectively analyzed and compared to data from 1000-2200 of non-PAT trial days during the trial periods. Results: Median ED LOS decreased from 3.8 to 3.4 hours for high-acuity patients (CTAS 1-3), from 2.1 to 1.8 hours for low-acuity patients (CTAS 4-5), and from 9.3 to 8.0 hours for all admitted patients. During PAT trial weekends, there was a decrease in the average time to PIA by 65% (from 73 to 26 minutes for CTAS 2-5), average number of daily BCAS offload delays by 39% (from 2.3 to 1.4 delays per day), and number of patients who LWBS from 2.4% to 1.7%. Conclusion: The implementation of PAT was associated with improvements in all five measures of ED throughput, providing a potential solution for EDOC at KGH. ED LOS was reduced compared to non-PAT control days, successfully meeting the suggested national targets. PAT could improve efficiency, resulting in the ability to see more patients in the ED, and increase the quality and safety of ED practice. Next, we hope to prospectively evaluate PAT, continuing to analyze these process measures, perform a cost-benefit analysis, and formally assess ED staff and patient perceptions of the program.
Jakobshavn Isbræ is a major ice stream that drains the west-central Greenland ice sheet and becomes afloat in Jakobshavn Isfjord (69° N, 49° W), where it has maintained the world’s fastest-known sustained velocity and calving rate (7 kma−1) for at least four decades. The floating portion is approximately 12 km long and 6 km wide. Surface elevations and motion vectors were determined photogrammetrically for about 500 crevasses on the floating ice, and adjacent grounded ice, using aerial photographs obtained 2 weeks apart in July l985. Surface strain rates were computed from a mesh of 399 quadrilateral elements having velocity measurements at each corner. It is shown that heavy crevassing of floating ice invalidates the assumptions of linear strain theory that (i) surface strain in the floating ice is homogeneous in both space and time, (ii) the squares and products of strain components are nil, and (iii) first- and second-order rotation components are small compared to strain components. Therefore, strain rates and rotation rates were also computed using non-linear strain theory. The percentage difference between computed linear and non-linear second invariants of strain rate per element were greatest (mostly in the range 40–70%) where crevassing is greatest. Isopleths of strain rate parallel and transverse to flow and elevation isopleths relate crevassing to known and inferred pinning points.
Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
The current pilot study aimed to assess whether reporting quality would decline materially in adolescents completing weekly web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour dietary recalls (ASA24-Kids-2014) and interviewer-administered 24 h dietary recalls for six weeks. We also aimed to assess method preference.
We conducted two studies. Study 1 (n 20) randomized participants to complete either one ASA24-Kids-2014 or one interviewer-administered recall weekly, for six weeks. Energy intake and number of foods reported were described for each method over time. Differences between recall methods for each measure were tested using mixed-effects regression. Study 2 (n 10) employed a randomized crossover design to describe method preference.
Dietary intake was collected either by telephone (interviewer-administered dietary recalls) or via the Internet (ASA24-Kids-2014 dietary recalls).
Adolescents aged 12–17 years with no prior diet recording experience were enrolled.
In Study 1, mean (sd) total energy and number of foods reported decreased by 50 (222) kJ (12 (53) kcal) and 0·05 (0·31) items v. 38 (138) kJ (9 (33) kcal) and 0·17 (0·14) items per recall for participants randomized to the ASA24-Kids-2014 v. interviewer-administered recalls, respectively. There was no difference between groups for either measure (P > 0·57). In Study 2, eight of ten participants preferred the interviewer-administered recall over the ASA24-Kids-2014. Overall, seven of twenty participants experienced technical difficulties with the ASA24-Kids-2014.
No appreciable decay in reporting quality was seen for either method. However, participants reported a preference for the interviewer-administered recall. Our findings can help inform and support larger studies to further characterize the performance of the ASA24 in adolescents.
The floating terminal of Jakobshavn Isbræ, the fastest Greenland ice stream, has disintegrated since 2002, resulting in a doubling of ice velocity and rapidly lowering inland ice elevations. Conditions prior to disintegration were modeled using control theory in a plane-stress solution, and the Missoula model of ice-shelf flow. Both approaches pointed to a mechanism that inhibits ice flow and that is not captured by either approach. Jamming of flow, an inherent property of granular materials passing through a constriction (Jakobshavn Isfjord), is postulated as the mechanism. Rapid disintegration of heavily crevassed floating ice accompanies break-up of the ice jam.
Considerable progress has been made over the last few years in ground based optical interferometery. The Mark III optical interferometer at Mount Wilson which at this time is operating with a 12 meter north south baseline is capable of measuring amplitude and phase. Experience gained from this facility will allow for the development of a large optical array. Preliminary plans are described for a facility that will be capable of milliarcsecond imaging of celestial objects at wavelengths from 0.4 to 10 microns. If funded this array will be in operation by 1993.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n−3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n−3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n−3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n−3 LCPUFA in ovo. Breeder hens were fed either flaxseed oil (High-ALA), fish oil (high n−3 LCPUFA) or tallow- (low n−3 PUFA, Control) based diets. The newly hatched chicks in each group were fed either the High-ALA or the Control diets until harvest at 42 days’ post-hatch. The n−3 PUFA content of egg yolk and day-old chick meat closely matched the n−3 PUFA composition of the maternal diet. In contrast, the n−3 PUFA composition of breast and leg meat tissues of the 42-day-old offspring closely matched the diet fed post-hatch, with no significant effect of maternal diet. Indeed, there was an inhibition of n−3 LCPUFA accumulation in meat of the broilers from the maternal Fish-Oil diet group when fed the post-hatch High-ALA diet. Therefore, this approach is not valid to elevate n-3 LCPUFA in chicken meat.
Wild oat control options are limited in western Canada due to resistance to most common herbicides. Control of wild oat with pyroxasulfone, a soil-applied, very-long-chain fatty-acid inhibitor, was investigated. A series of greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to isolate the effects of vertical seed position, site of herbicide interception, and tillage on wild oat control with pyroxasulfone in comparison with triallate. In greenhouse experiments, wild oat shoot length (soil surface to leaf tip) was reduced (P<0.05) in shallow-seeded wild oat compared with deep-seeded wild oat with pyroxasulfone (6.2 and 9.8 cm, respectively) and triallate (3.7 and 13.2 cm, respectively). Soil-applied pyroxasulfone remained in the top 2.5 cm of the soil with or without a simulated rainfall event. Pyroxasulfone was most effective if either the seed or the shoot 1 cm above the seed intercepted the herbicide layer. If a wild oat emerges from deeper in the soil profile, the sensitive part of the seedling may not intercept an effective rate of pyroxasulfone in the soil. In field experiments comparing deep- and shallow-seeded wild oat treated with pyroxasulfone and triallate in fields with and without tillage, there were no significant effects of tillage alone on wild oat shoot length. Deep-seeded wild oat emerged early, and while herbicides reduced shoot growth, shoots were >10 cm. Shallow-seeded wild oat had delayed emergence, possibly due to reduced soil moisture, and herbicides reduced shoot growth to <10cm. Pyroxasulfone is likely to be more effective in no-till fields where wild oat seeds are not located deep in the soil.
The CLIMAP 18000 years b.p. experiment required reconstructing late-Wisconsin-Weichselian ice sheets. In the Northern Hemisphere, the greatest uncertainty in these reconstructions is the area covered by ice sheets. Two schools of thought exist (Hughes and others, in press). The minimum-ice-sheet school holds that ice sheets originated from present ice caps in the High Arctic islands, but the northern seaward margins of these ice sheets retreated as the southern landward margins advanced. This occurred because northern margins became isolated from sources of precipitation as Arctic seas became permanently ice-covered and the advancing southern margin changed atmospheric circulation patterns. In this view, these ice sheets stay about the same size and migrate southward during an ice age. Northern margins rarely reach sea-level during the later stage of the ice age so no marine portions form and ablation is by melting or sublimation. Marine portions formed only when the ice sheets migrated across shallow seas between the High Arctic islands and the mainland. At the end of the ice age, huge amounts of heat had to be transferred from the tropics to the ice sheets in order to account for late-Wisconsin-Weichselian and Holocene retreat-rates by melting along ice-sheet margins.
The increasing occurrence of herbicide resistance, along with no new herbicide modes of action developed in over 30 yr, have increased the need for nonherbicidal weed management strategies and tactics. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) practices have been successfully adopted in Australia to manage problematic weeds. For HWSC to be effective, a high proportion of weed seeds must be retained on the plant at crop maturity. This 2-yr (2014, 2015) study evaluated seed shatter of wild oat, green foxtail, wild mustard, and cleavers in both an early (field pea) and late (spring wheat) maturity crop in field experiments at Scott, Saskatchewan. Seed shatter was assessed using shatter trays collected once a week during crop ripening stage, as well as at two crop maturation or harvest stages (swathing, direct-combining). Seed shatter differed among weed species, but was similar between crops at maturity: ca. 30% for wild oat, 5% for cleavers, < 2% for wild mustard, and < 1% for green foxtail. Overall, seed shatter of wild oat occurred sooner and at greater levels during the growing season compared with the other weed species. Viability of both shattered and plant-retained seeds was relatively high for all species. The small amount of seed shatter of cleavers, wild mustard, and green foxtail suggests that these species may be suitable candidates for HWSC. Due to the amount and timing of wild oat seed shatter, HWSC may not reduce population abundance of this grassy weed.