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To evaluate the presence of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with immune-mediated inner-ear disease.
The presence of endolymphatic hydrops was prospectively evaluated in 17 patients clinically diagnosed with secondary (n = 5) or primary (n = 12) immune-mediated inner-ear disease, who attended the ENT department of a tertiary care centre for evaluation or treatment over the previous year. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone.
Intratympanic gadolinium three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed hydrops in 11 of 12 patients with primary immune-mediated inner-ear disease (92 per cent). Of these, seven patients (64 per cent) presented only cochlear (n = 5) or predominantly cochlear (n = 2) hydrops. A positive magnetic resonance imaging result was observed in only one of five patients with secondary immune-mediated inner-ear disease (20 per cent).
This study confirms the presence of endolymphatic hydrops in immune-mediated inner-ear disease patients. The virtual absence of hydrops in patients with secondary immune-mediated inner-ear disease is remarkable, although firm conclusions cannot be drawn; this should be explored in a multicentre study with a larger sample of patients. A different immune reaction without development of endolymphatic hydrops should not be ruled out in secondary immune-mediated inner-ear disease patients.
To evaluate patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and normal hearing over 10 years, compared with healthy controls.
Thirty patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus were evaluated in a prospective, descriptive study. Eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, i.e. normal otoscopy, normal hearing, normal imaging and disease duration of less than one year. Eleven healthy companions of ENT patients were recruited as controls.
At study commencement, the mean patient age was 32.75 years (range, 15–49 years) and there were no statistically significant audiometric differences between patients and controls. No statistically significant audiometric changes were found either within or between the patient and control groups at 10-year follow up.
These results supply no evidence for progressive hearing loss in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with no hearing involvement at study commencement. Therefore, we recommend audiometric tests only for systemic lupus erythematosus patients complaining of hearing loss, or for other clinical purposes. It is conceivable that asymptomatic hearing loss could be observed over a more extended follow-up period (i.e. more than 10 years).
Exposure to cisplatin leads to cochlear cell death by apoptosis; these changes are most marked on the seventh day after exposure. Heat shock proteins are induced in inner ear cells in response to a variety of stimuli. This study examined the role of heat shock protein 70 in cisplatin-induced cochlear cell death.
Fifty-six Sprague–Dawley rats were involved. Some were injected with cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight), some with cisplatin plus the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OME)-fluoromethylketone (5 mg/kg body weight) and others were left as controls (being injected only with saline). Seven days later, we examined the expression of heat shock protein 70 and several other apoptosis-related proteins within the rat cochlear cells; we also assessed total superoxide dismutase activity, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response.
Seven days after cisplatin injection, significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70 was found within the rat cochleae. This correlated with increased executioner caspase levels, total superoxide dismutase activity and auditory brainstem response thresholds, and a significant elevation in auditory steady state response thresholds. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity significantly reduced cochlear heat shock protein 70 expression and total superoxide dismutase activity, and improved auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response thresholds.
Seven days after cisplatin exposure, we found disturbances of the cochlear cellular machinery involving heat shock protein 70, other apoptotic proteins and total superoxide dismutase.
The ototoxic effects of cisplatin include loss of outer hair cells, degeneration of the stria vascularis and a decrease in the number of spiral ganglion cells. Scanning microscopy has shown balloon-like protrusions (blebs) of the plasma membrane of inner hair cells following cisplatin administration. The present study was undertaken to identify the possible role of inner and outer hair cell blebs in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
Materials and methods:
Twenty-five guinea pigs were injected with cisplatin and their hearing tested at different time-points, before sacrifice and examination with scanning electron microscopy.
Results and analysis:
Seven animals showed blebs in the inner hair cells at different stages. Hearing thresholds were lower in animals showing blebs.
Cisplatin seems to be able to induce changes in inner hair cells as well as in other structures in the organ of Corti. Blebbing observed in animals following cisplatin administration could play a specific role in the regulation of intracellular pressure.
To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of diagnostic tests for immunomediated hearing loss.
We searched Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for potentially relevant studies.
Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria of this systematic review. The diagnosis of immunomediated hearing loss was based on the clinical presentation and the response to corticosteroid administration.
The following data were extracted from the selected studies and entered into a standardised database: population demographics; exclusion and inclusion criteria; diagnostic tests; sensitivity; specificity; the number of true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative values; therapy used, including dose and duration; and delay between symptom onset and therapy commencement.
This systematic review combined data from 679 patients with immunomediated hearing loss, reported by 22 research teams. Substantial heterogeneity was found among the included studies; for this reason, summary sensitivity and specificity values were not computed.
The results of diagnostic tests for immunomediated hearing loss depend on many factors, and there is a risk of potential bias. This is the first time that such a systematic review has been presented; such a review is a more rigorous method of demonstrating the utility of the available diagnostic tests.
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