This paper is a summary of the Second Bat-Sheva Seminar on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Flows and turbulence. It was held in the University of the Negev, Israel, on 28-31 March 1978, with 64 participants from 7 countries. Reviews and research papers were presented on the general theory of MHD, MHD duct flows (with emphasis on novel aspects such as non-uniform fields and fluid properties, bends, free-surface effects and longitudinal diffusion), two-phase flows (especially those likely to occur in a liquid-metal generator), turbulence and instabilities, and electrically driven flows (with new results presented for the theory of laminar and turbulent flows in induction furnaces, and for the theory of thermo-electrically driven flows in transverse magnetic fields). One day of the conference was devoted to turbulence, mainly without magnetic fields, with reviews and new results presented on the theory and measurements of coherent structures, intermittency at high Reynolds number, methods of calculating shear flows, and measurement techniques. The seminar was a strange mixture of people and topics, which produced some interesting papers and some useful discussion.