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The use of three-dimensional printing has been rapidly expanding over the last several decades. Virtual surgical three-dimensional simulation and planning has been shown to increase efficiency and accuracy in various clinical scenarios.
To report the feasibility of three-dimensional printing in paediatric laryngotracheal stenosis and discuss potential applications of three-dimensional printed models in airway surgery.
Retrospective case series in a tertiary care aerodigestive centre.
Three-dimensional printing was undertaken in two cases of paediatric laryngotracheal stenosis. One patient with grade 4 subglottic stenosis with posterior glottic involvement underwent an extended partial cricotracheal reconstruction. Another patient with grade 4 tracheal stenosis underwent tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Models of both tracheas were printed using PolyJet technology from a Stratasys Connex2 printer.
It is feasible to demonstrate stenosis in three-dimensional printed models, allowing for patient-specific pre-operative surgical simulation. The models serve as an educational tool for patients’ understanding of the surgery, and for teaching residents and fellows.
Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Keel bone damage included fractures and/or deviations, and was recorded, alongside with other animal based measures, by palpation and visual inspection of at least 50 randomly collected hens per flock between 52 and 73 weeks of age. Management and housing data were obtained by interviews, inspection and by feed analysis. Keel bone damage flock prevalences ranged from 3% to 88%. Compiled on the basis of literature and practical experience, 26 potential associative factors of KBD went into an univariable selection by Spearman correlation analysis or Mann–Whitney U test (with P<0.1 level). The resulting nine factors were presented to stepwise forward linear regression modelling. Aviary v. floor systems, absence of natural daylight in the hen house, a higher proportion of underweight birds, as well as a higher laying performance were found to be significantly associated with a higher percentage of hens with KBD. The final model explained 32% of the variation in KBD between farms. The moderate explanatory value of the model underlines the multifactorial nature of KBD. Based on the results increased attention should be paid to an adequate housing design and lighting that allows the birds easy orientation and safe manoeuvring in the system. Furthermore, feeding management should aim at sufficient bird live weights that fulfil breeder weight standards. In order to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between laying performance, feed management and KBD further investigations are needed.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time
phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to
address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small
space missions. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope that
uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than
slewing the entire spacecraft or telescope to aim the optical instrument at the GRB
position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for
the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and transient studies. Its fast
response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRB each year will provide
unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRB as a new standard
candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. We describe the current limit in
early photon measurements, the aspects of early photon physics, our soon-to-be-launched
UFFO-pathfinder mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.
The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The
SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by
means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a
17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and 4.3 arcsec resolution (full width half
maximum of the point spread function) The beam-steering mirror enables the SMT to access a
35 × 35degree region and point and settle within 1 sec. All mirrors were fabricated to
about 0.02 wavelengths RMS in wave front error (WFE) and 84.7% average reflectivity over
200 nm ~ 650 nm. The RC telescope was aligned to 0.05 wavelengths RMS in WFE (test
wavelength 632.8 nm). In this paper, the technical details of the RC telescope and slewing
mirror system assembly, integration, and testing are given shortly, and performance tests
of the full SMT optical system are reported.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) aims to detect the earliest moment of Gamma-Ray
Bursts (GRBs) which is not well known, resulting into the enhancement of GRB mechanism
understanding. The pathfinder mission was proposed to be a scaled-down version of UFFO,
and only contains the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) measuring the
X-ray/gamma-ray with the wide-field of view and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) with a
rapid-response for the UV/optical photons. Once the UBAT detects a GRB candidate with the
position accuracy of 10 arcmin, the SMT steers the UV/optical photons from the candidate
to the telescope by the fast rotatable mirror and provides the early UV/optical photons
measurements with 4 arcsec accuracy. The SMT has a modified Ritchey-Chrètien telescope
with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter including the rotatable mirror and the image
readout by the intensified charge-coupled device. There is a key board called the UFFO
Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) that manages the communication of each telescope and also
of the satellite and the UFFO overall operation. This pathfinder is designed and built
within the limited size and weight of ~20 kg and the low power consumption up to
~30 W. We will discuss the design and performance of the UFFO-pathfinder, and its
integration to the Lomonosov satellite.
We have investigated the nonthermal bioplasma sources and their characteristics as well as their interactions with biological cells. The electron temperature and plasma density are measured to be about 1.5 eV and 3×1012 cm-3 , respectively, for the direct palsma jet under Ar gas flow. The hydroxyl radical density has also been investigated and measured to be maximum value of about 3 ×1015 cm-3 and 8 ×1014 cm-3 in the direct plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge bioplasma, respectively, by the ultraviolet optical absorption spectroscopy. Herein, we have investigated the basic interactions of these nonthermal bioplasma with the living organisms in morphological and biomolecular aspects. We found that the secondary electron emision coefficient of the biological surface has been drastically increased by atmospheric bioplasma, which indicates the biological surface to be oxidized especially by the hydroxyl (OH) radical species. In order to elucidate the basic mechanisms for the cell shrinking and apoptosis leading to a cell death by the nonthermal bioplasma, the cell membrane potential has been estimated based on the ROS density as well as cell capacitances. It is also found that the molecular electron energy band structure in the biological cells have been shifted closer toward the vacuum surface and accordingly their central energy of molecular band becomes small by the nonthermal bioplasma due to cell oxidation caused by OH radicals.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using hard X-ray from GRBs. It also contains the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) for the fast detection of UV-optical photons from GRBs. It is designed to begin the UV-optical observations in less than a few seconds after the trigger. The UBAT is based on a coded-mask X-ray camera with a wide field of view (FOV) and is composed of the coded mask, a hopper and a detector module. The SMT has a fast rotatable mirror which allows a fast UV-optical detection after the trigger. The telescope is a modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter, and an image intensifier readout by CCD. The UFFO pathfinder is scheduled to launch into orbit on 2012 June by the Lomonosov spacecraft. It is a scaled-down version of UFFO in order to make the first systematic study of early UV/optical light curves, including the rise phase of GRBs. We expect UBAT to trigger ~44 GRBs/yr and expect SMT to detect ~10 GRBs/yr.
We report simple and effective methods to develop long-term, stable silicon nanowire-based pH sensors and systematic studies of the performance of the developed sensors. In this work, we fabricate silicon nanowire pH sensors based on top-down fabrication processes such as E-beam lithography and conventional photolithography. In order to improve the stability of the sensor performance, the sensors are coated with a passivation layer (silicon nitride) for effective electrical insulation and ion-blocking. The stability, the pH sensitivity, and the repeatability of the sensor response are critically analyzed with regard to the physics of sensing interface between sample liquid and the sensing surface. The studies verify that the sensor with a passivation layer over critical thickness show long-term, stable sensor response without long-term drift. The studies also show the detection of pH level with silicon nanowire sensors is repeatable only after proper rinsing of sensor surfaces and there exists trade-off between the stability and the pH sensitivity of sensor response.
We have developed material (Bi0.7Dy0.3FeO3)(BDFO) which exhibits the multiferroic behavior at room temperature with significant coupling in bulk as well as thin films. If these properties could be fashioned in nano rods, implementation in devices could be certainly more prominent and straight forward. We have therefore used vertically aligned arrays of silicon rods (~5 μm in length and ~ 500 nm in diameter) as base material to direct the growth of BDFO in rod form. BDFO is deposited on the surface of Si rods by using pulsed laser deposition technique. These BDFO/Si rods are then separated from the support, dispersed into propanol and transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates for testing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate presence of phase pure BDFO layer on Si rods. Saturation observed at room temperature in magnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loops confirm the coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. Change in ferroelectric polarization measured on single rod in the presence of applied magnetic field suggests the coupling behavior between two order parameters. Moreover, change in magnetic domain pattern of BDFO rods associated with applied electric field further supports the presence of coupling behavior in both ways. The vertical and lateral displacement occurring in BDFO/Si rods with applied electric field helps to confirm their piezoresponce behavior. BDFO/Si nanorods with multifunctional properties could find variety of novel device applications with flexibility and simplicity in operation. It might include single rod power generation by means of applied stress or magnetic field.
We report white light emission from ZnO nanostructures in powder form, prepared by microwave irradiation-assisted chemical synthesis, in the presence of a structure directing agent. Determination of their crystallinity, actual shape, and orientation was made using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and optical properties have been studied through photoluminescence (PL), measured using He-Cd laser (325 nm) as the excitation source. There is a noticeable variation in the luminescence correlated with variation of process parameters, such as microwave power, duration of irradiation, and the type/concentration of surfactants. The CIE (Commission Internationale l’Eclairage) diagram shows that the luminescence lies in yellow region of the color space. As the luminescence from the powder of ZnO lies in the yellow region, it is possible to produce white light from the powder of ZnO by using a blue laser as the excitation source.
We develop a novel patterning technique to create 3D patterns of micro, nanoparticle assembly via evaporative self-assembly based on confinement/release of micro/nano particles assembly based on the coffee-ring effect of evaporating suspension. Based on the presented technique, we demonstrate that the patterns of 3D assembly of various sizes of microparticles (Silica), metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO) and metallic nanoparticles (Ag) can be successfully generated by low-concentrated particle suspension (1.25 wt % ~ 5 wt %) without additional sintering steps and we also show the geometries of the patterns can be finely controlled by adjusting the parameters of the process.
BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 (001) substrate by using ion beam sputtering process. At low oxygen partial pressure of 11 m Pa, rhombohedral and large c/a mixed phase thin film have been obtained in spite of rhombohedral BFO single phase formation at high oxygen partial pressure of 73 mPa. From wide area 2θ-Ψ mappings, diffraction peaks from large c/a phase BFO thin film were obtained with the same extinction rule as those of rhombohedral BFO. Reciprocal space mappings around BFO (003) and BFO (103) spots indicate that lattice parameters of large c/a phase BFO were a = 0.381 nm and c = 0.461 nm (c/a =1.22), respectively. Moreover ferroelectric domain switching could be observed in both of rhombohedral BFO and mixed phase BFO thin films.