To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A satisfactory understanding of the origin of the dependence of galaxy properties on their environment has remained, so far, out of reach. In the light of numerous observational results and substantial theoretical progress obtained for clusters of galaxies in the last few years, a primary goal is to understand how the star formation activity depends on cluster substructure, i.e. on the merging/accretion history of a cluster. In this contribution we present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for an abrupt change in the star formation histories of a subset of galaxies in the Coma cluster.
The fields of research covered by Division VIII and its two Commissions have experienced remarkable progress over the last several years. This is due at least in part to the proliferation of major new observational facilities, and the addition of the several 8-m class telescopes presently being completed and new space facilities which will have a huge impact in the years to come. Many of the important recent scientific developments are summarized on the following pages in the reports of Commission 28 and Commission 47. These reports have been prepared in the “short” form, and are intended both to present the major scientific highlights and the most important conference proceedings and reviews for further reading.
This report covers the period July 1996 to June 1999. It has been prepared by the President of the Commission with contributions from the members of the Organizing Committee and Dr. E.M. Corsini. As discussed in Kyoto and decided by the Organizing Committee, the report is meant to be in the “short” version.
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
Patients with damage to the cerebellum make reaching movements that are uncoordinated or “ataxic.” One prevailing hypothesis is that the cerebellum functions as an internal model for planning movements, and that damage to the cerebellum results in movements that do not properly account for arm dynamics. An exoskeleton robot was used to record multi-joint reaching movements. Subsequently, joint-torque trajectories were calculated and a gradient descent algorithm found optimal, patient-specific perturbations to actual limb dynamics predicted to reduce directional reaching errors by an average of 41%, elucidating a promising form of robotic intervention and adding support to the internal model hypothesis.
In this paper, we explore the interfacial effects appearing in highly strained La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) ultra-thin films (10-12nm) grown on BaTiO3 (BTO) ferroelectric substrates. The strong tendency to phase separation of this optimally doped manganite contributes to the exotic phenomena observed in magnetism and transport experiments: the so-called Matteucci magnetic loops, magnetic granularity and a second metal insulator transition are observed between 50K and the LCMO Curie temperature, 180K. All these properties define the multiferroic character of these heterostructures, which in LCMO//BTO system is strongly linked to magnetoelastic coupling.
This study examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-oriented scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, Dumenci, & Rescorla, 2003) using confirmatory factor analysis to compare the six-factor structure of the DSM-oriented scales to competing models consistent with developmental theories of symptom differentiation. We tested these models on both clinic-referred (N = 757) and school-based, nonreferred (N = 713) samples of youths in order to assess the generalizability of the factorial structures. Although previous research has supported the fit of the six-factor DSM-oriented structure in a normative sample of youths ages 7 to 18 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001), tripartite model research indicates that anxiety and depressive symptomology are less differentiated among children compared to adolescents (Jacques & Mash, 2004). We thus examined the relative fit of a six- and a five-factor model (collapsing anxiety and depression) with younger (ages 7–10) and older (ages 11–18) youth subsamples. The results revealed that the six-factor model fit the best in all samples except among younger nonclinical children. The results extended the generalizability of the rationally derived six-factor structure of the DSM-oriented scales to clinic-referred youths and provided further support to the notion that younger children in nonclinical samples exhibit less differentiated symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Limited information is available on mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas arising in the head and neck.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 20 patients who were histologically diagnosed with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and treated at our institution between January 1990 and December 2009.
Treatment consisted of surgical resection alone in two patients (10 per cent), surgical resection with consecutive radiotherapy in one (5 per cent), and radiotherapy alone in eight (40 per cent). Three patients (15 per cent) were treated with systemic chemotherapy, and three (15 per cent) received chemoradiotherapy. Three patients (15 per cent) were informed of the diagnosis but not treated for their condition.
All of the 20 patients were still alive after a mean follow-up period of 50.8 months. Local treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the head and neck should be the first choice in early-stage disease. However, prolonged follow up is important to determine these patients' long-term response to treatment.
The actual transverse and longitudinal displacement of PZT thick film was measured using a newly developed atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM is attached a feedback circuit named “torsion feedback”. The torsion and Z-height feedback circuits control an AFM cantilever to follow piezoelectric deformation of the sample. To measure transverse displacement, the cantilever contacts the edge of sample. The transverse displacement is determined from the torsion feedback signal absolutely. To measure longitudinal displacement, the cantilever contacts the center of sample. The longitudinal displacement is determined from Z-height feedback signal absolutely. A 5-μm-thick PZT film was prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. The film sample was shaped square pillar. The side electrode length (L) of square pillar shaped sample was ranged from 1000 μm to 10 μm. The relation between side electrode length and the transverse or the longitudinal displacements were investigated. With decreasing L, the transverse displacement decreased nonlinearly, and the longitudinal displacement increased nonlinearly. The finite element method (FEM) simulation suggests that the substrate clamped PZT film behaved nonlinearly. The effective -d31 and d33 were calculated from the measured displacement, and these values increase with decreasing L. The effective d33 and -d31 showed correlation, and the ratio was d33 : -d31 = 5.3 : 1 , whereas the bulk ratiois d33 : -d31 = 2.4 : 1.This result suggests that the substrate clamping effect of the transverse displacement was larger than that of the longitudinal displacement.
Regularly spaced polymer dots are formed on a silicon surface by rubbing a thin polymer plate against the silicon substrate. Typically, the disk-shaped dots are 10 nm in height and 160 nm in diameter, and are separated by 340 nm from each other. It is found that the substrate temperature, the rubbing rate, the polymer viscoelasticity, and wettability against a substrate surface must be within a certain range to produce the aligned dots.
Adhesion strength in sputter-deposited Cu thin films on various types of barrier layers was investigated by scratch test. The barrier layers were Ta1-xNx with varied nitrogen concentration of 0, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5. Microstructure observation by TEM indicated that each layer consists of mixed phases of β;-Ta, bcc-TaN0.1, hexagonal-TaN, and fcc-TaN, depending on the nitrogen concentration. A sulfur- containing amorphous phase was also present discontinuously at the Cu/barrier interfaces in all samples. Scratch test showed that delamination occurred at the Cu/barrier interface and that the overall adhesion strength increased with increasing the nitrogen concentration. A good correlation was found between the measured adhesion strength and the composing phases in the barrier layer.
Nano-technology has been identified as an area which will bring about new evolutions in materials, devices and processes. The challenges of nano-biotechnology entail manufacturing more sophisticated and highly efficient biosensors and biomaterials at the nano-scale level for use in interdisciplinary fields. Here, we introduce a biomaterial produced by magnetic bacteria, bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs), and the molecular architecture technique we have used for its application.
Magnetic bacteria synthesize intracellular magnets which are encapsulated by lipid bilayer membranes. Sizes of BMPs vary from 50 - 100 nm in diameter, and number over 10 per cell. BMPs are composed of magnetite (Fe3O4) with a single magnetic domain. Easy aqueous dispersion of BMPs enable development of highly sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassays by the chemical coupling of antibodies on BMP surfaces. BMPs can likewise be used as drug delivery systems employing magnetoliposomes with high capture volumes. We previously reported a technique for preparing recombinant BMPs on which proteins were displayed by gene-fusion. We furthermore applied such recombinant BMPs to biotechnologically-important issues, including novel bioassay platforms for medicine and environmental management. We envisage the production of more refined chemicals and agents through expression on BMPs by gene-fusion followed by simple purification using magnet.
Division VIII gathers astronomers engaged in the study of the visible and invisible matter in the Universe at large, from Local Group galaxies via distant galaxies and galaxy clusters to the large-scale structure of the Universe and the cosmic background radiation.
The members of Commission 28 on Galaxies were very busy during this General Assembly, with the Commission involved in two Symposia (IAU Symposium No. 235 Galaxy Evolution across the Hubble Time, IAU Symposium No. 238 Black Holes: from Stars to Galaxies), and two Joint Discussions (JD07 The Universe at z > 6, JD15 New Cosmology Results from the Spitzer Space Telescope). Therefore, the Business Meeting was combined with the Division VIII Business Meeting, which included a short information session on the new Commission 28 Organizing Committee. The triennial report of the Commission for 2003-2005 was also distributed, and is available on the Commission 28 web site.
As documented by the reports of the Presidents of Commission 28 and Commission 47 the fields of extra-galactic research and cosmology have experienced a higher and higher development leading to a vast harvest of results and discoveries. They range from the description of the overall structure of the universe to that of the individual properties of galaxies. The availability of very large telescopes and the coverage of regions of the sky with deep surveys, on the observational side, and the wide use of sophisticated numerical simulations on the theoretical one are starting to produce a satisfactory understanding of the physical processes taking place during the evolution of galaxies. Very often there is an profitable interplay between the subjects of the two Commissions without clearcut boundaries. This makes Division VIII, which is one of the largest of the IAU, counting 1373 members, very well balanced and deserving to remain without modifications for the future.
A main topic at this meeting is how galaxies are affected when they enter for the first time the cluster environment from the outskirts. Most of the times we are forced to infer the environmental effects indirectly, relying on systematic variations of galaxy properties with environment, but there aren't many examples of direct observations able to unveil ongoing transformations, and the corresponding mechanism producing it. We present a case in which it is possible to identify the cluster environment, and in particular the intracluster medium and the recent infall history of galaxies onto the cluster, as the cause for a recent, abrupt change in the evolutionary history of galaxies.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Photometric properties (effective surface brightness, effective radius, radial profile index, axis ratio, color, color gradient) of 328 galaxies in the Coma cluster fainter than $R=15$ mag are examined as a function of the distance from the cluster center. No significant gradient is found for the effective surface brightness, effective radius and radial profile index. The distribution of axis ratios shows a concentration of round galaxies at the cluster center in the magnitude range $16.5 \lt R \lt 18$; most of these are found to be old and to have intermediate metal abundance, suggesting that they are nucleated dwarf ellipticals. On the other hand, we find a significant gradient in color, in the sense that galaxy colours become bluer with increasing distance from the cluster center. We conclude that this color gradient represents a metallicity gradient.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html