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In order to assess the accuracy of schizophrenia diagnoses for genetic studies, we identified all schizophrenia patients (n = 492) in an isolated community with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (HDR) between 1969-1991. For the accuracy study we identified a sample of 73 patients from registers with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III-R for schizophrenia (codes 295.10, 295.30, 295.60, 295.90) (n = 62) or “schizophrenia spectrum” diagnoses (295.40, 295.70, 297.10, 301.20, 301.22) (n = 11). When the operational criteria (DSM-III-R) were applied by two senior researchers using information from the original mental hospital records, 93% (68/73) of the cases fulfilled criteria for schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum. The results demonstrate that the schizophrenia diagnoses of the registers are accurate when a broad concept of schizophrenia is applied. When using operational DSM-III-R schizophrenia criteria, eight false positive cases were found among the 62 mental hospital schizophrenia diagnoses. Consequently, there may be a need to reassess schizophrenia diagnoses depending on the purpose of the study. We also found good agreement between DSM-III-R (kappa 0.93) and operational criteria (OPCRIT) diagnostic system (kappa 0.89) diagnoses, made by one researcher, compared with operational diagnoses. This indicates the possibility for the reliable use of one of these methods alone for diagnostic reassessment. The information in the HDR on primary diagnoses and on the dates of admission and discharge was accurately transferred from the hospital records.
High-resolution analysis of the ice core from Colle Gnifetti, Switzerland, allows yearly and sub-annual measurement of pollution for the period of highest lead production in the European Middle Ages, c. AD 1170–1220. Here, the authors use atmospheric circulation analysis and other geoarchaeological records to establish that Britain was the principal source of that lead pollution. The comparison of annual lead deposition at Colle Gnifetti displays a strong similarity to trends in lead production documented in the English historical accounts. This research provides unique new insight into the yearly political economy and environmental impact of the Angevin Empire of Kings Henry II, Richard the Lionheart and John.
The seventh-century AD switch from gold to silver currencies transformed the socio-economic landscape of North-west Europe. The source of silver, however, has proven elusive. Recent research, integrating ice-core data from the Colle Gnifetti drill site in the Swiss Alps, geoarchaeological records and numismatic and historical data, has provided new evidence for this transformation. Annual ice-core resolution data are combined with lead pollution analysis to demonstrate that significant new silver mining facilitated the change to silver coinage, and dates the introduction of such coinage to c. AD 660. Archaeological evidence and atmospheric modelling of lead pollution locates the probable source of the silver to mines at Melle, in France.
Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.
Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−-based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10−5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.
Sarcocystis spp. represent apicomplexan parasites. They usually have a heteroxenous life cycle. Around 200 species have been described, affecting a wide range of animals worldwide, including reptiles. In recent years, large numbers of reptiles have been imported into Europe as pets and, as a consequence, animal welfare and species protection issues emerged. A sample of pooled feces from four confiscated green pythons (Morelia viridis) containing Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts was investigated. These snakes were imported for the pet trade and declared as being captive-bred. Full length 18S rRNA genes were amplified, cloned into plasmids and sequenced. Two different Sarcocystis spp. sequences were identified and registered as Sarcocystis sp. from M. viridis in GenBank. Both showed a 95–97% sequence identity with the 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis singaporensis. Phylogenetic analysis positioned these sequences together with other Sarcocystis spp. from snakes and rodents as definitive and intermediate hosts (IH), respectively. Sequence data and also the results of clinical and parasitological examinations suggest that the snakes were definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. that circulate in wild IH. Thus, it seems unlikely that the infected snakes had been legally bred. Our research shows that information on the infection of snakes with Sarcocystis spp. may be used to assess compliance with regulations on the trade with wildlife species.
Bulk structures of un-stabilized ZrO2-x with x in the 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.44 range under ambient pressure exist in three different structures (monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic). At ambient temperature and elevated pressures above 3.5 GPa, zirconia, at these compositions, a fourth phase is found, the orthorhombic structure. A dilute sol-gel method was used to produce nanoscale zirconia particles containing the unstabilized orthorhombic cotunnite structure for use in this project. Extensive characterization of this material indicates that the critical factor in determining the synthesized structures appears to be the number and placement of oxygen vacancies. These results also indicate that surface energy alone is not the controlling factor in determining the crystal structure synthesized.
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is primarily a disease of cattle. In both Ireland and the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are an important wildlife reservoir of infection. This paper examined the hypothesis that TB is spatially correlated in cattle herds, established the range of correlation and the effect, if any, of proactive badger removal on this. We also re-analysed data from the Four Area Project in Ireland, a large-scale intervention study aimed at assessing the effect of proactive badger culling on bovine TB incidence in cattle herds, taking possible spatial correlation into account. We established that infected herds are spatially correlated (the scale of spatial correlation is presented), but at a scale that varies with time and in different areas. Spatial correlation persists following proactive badger removal.