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This research communication addressed the hypothesis that late lactation cows offered an oat-grain-based supplement or a high level of α-TOC supplementation at pasture would have improved milk composition and processability. Over a grazing period of 49 d, 48 Holstein Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were: control, pasture only (CTRL), pasture + 2.65 kg DM barley-based concentrate + 350 IU α-TOC/kg (BARLO), pasture + 2.65 kg DM oat-based concentrate + 350 IU α-TOC/kg (OATLO) and pasture + 2.65 kg DM oat-based concentrate + 1050 IU α-TOC/kg (OATHI). Within this randomised complete block design experiment cows were blocked on days in milk (DIM) and balanced for parity, milk yield and composition. Rennet coagulation time (RCT) was reduced in milk from cows offered OATHI compared to CTRL cows and OATLO. Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased by OATHI compared to OATLO and in OATLO compared to CTRL. Supplementation with OATHI reduced individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in milk compared to OATLO. In conclusion, supplementing grazing dairy cows with an oat-based supplement improved total milk CLA concentration compared to pasture only. Offering a high level of α-TOC (2931 IU/d) to dairy cows reduced RCT, individual SFA and increased total CLA concentration of milk compared to a lower α-TOC level (738 IU α-TOC/d).
Drawing on social-movement and sociolegal theorizing, we investigate legal-framing innovations in the briefs of reproductive-rights cause lawyers in prominent US Supreme Court abortion cases. Our results show that pro-choice activist attorneys engage in innovative women’s-rights framing when the political-legal context is more resistant to abortion rights for women, that is, when the political-legal opportunity structure is generally closed to reproductive-rights activism. We consider reproductive-rights framing in three types of pivotal abortion cases over the last half-century: challenges to limitations on public funding of abortion, challenges to regulations that include multiple restrictions on abortion access, and challenges to bans on second-trimester abortions. Our analysis proceeds both qualitatively and quantitatively, with close reading of the briefs to distill the main women’s-rights frames, a count analysis using text mining to examine use of the frames in the briefs, and assessment of the political-judicial context to discern its influence on cause-lawyer legal framing. We conclude by theorizing the importance of the broader political-legal context in understanding cause-lawyer legal-framing innovations.
In this chapter we provide an overview of the development of green criminology and focus specifically on a political economic perspective within green criminology that builds on the treadmill of production tradition in environmental sociology and ecological Marxism. This perspective calls for a scientifically grounded harms-based approach that studies green crimes, which are defined as unnecessary ecological disorganization. The treadmill of production framework organizes environmental destruction (or, ecological disorganization) into ecological withdrawals (i.e. the removal of resources from nature) and ecological additions (i.e. pollution). We review green criminological work in these two areas. We next provide an overview of research that links the traditional criminological perspective, social disorganization, to green crimes. We then turn to a discussion of how the treadmill of production impacts nonhuman species. We finish our review of political economic green criminology with some thoughts on the role of non-state actors in the treadmill of production, environmental enforcement and what we call the treadmill of law.
Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
There is a growing body of evidence highlighting the presence of a single general dimension of psychopathology that can account for multiple associations across mental and substance use disorders. However, relatively little evidence has emerged regarding the validity of this model with respect to a range of factors that have been previously implicated across multiple disorders. The current study utilized a cross-sectional population survey of adolescents (n = 2,003) to examine the extent to which broad psychopathology factors account for specific associations between psychopathology and key validators: poor sleep, self-harm, suicidality, risky sexual behavior, and low self-esteem. Confirmatory factor models, latent class models, and factor mixture models were estimated to identify the best structure of psychopathology. Structural equation models were then estimated to examine the broad and specific associations between each psychopathology indicator and the validators. A confirmatory factor model with three lower-order factors, representing internalizing, externalizing, and psychotic-like experiences, and a single higher-order factor evidenced the best fit. The associations between manifest indicators of psychopathology and validators were largely nonspecific. However, significant and large direct effects were found between several pairwise associations. These findings have implications for the identification of potential targets for intervention and/or tailoring of prevention programs.
Introduction: Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) in pediatric patients is poorly characterized. Literature is scarce, making identification and treatment challenging. This study's objective was to describe demographics and visit data of pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected CHS, in order to improve understanding of the disorder. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric patients (12-17 years) with suspected CHS presenting to one of two tertiary-care EDs; one pediatric and one pediatric/adult (combined annual pediatric census 40,550) between April 2014-March 2019. Charts were selected based on discharge diagnosis of abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting with positive cannabis urine screen, or discharge diagnosis of cannabis use, using ICD-10 codes. Patients with confirmed or likely diagnosis of CHS were identified and data including demographics, clinical history, and ED investigations/treatments were recorded by a trained research assistant. Results: 242 patients met criteria for review. 39 were identified as having a confirmed or likely diagnosis of CHS (mean age 16.2, SD 0.85 years with 64% female). 87% were triaged as either CTAS-2 or CTAS-3. 80% of patients had cannabis use frequency/duration documented. Of these, 89% reported at least daily use, the mean consumption was 1.30g/day (SD 1.13g/day), and all reported ≥6 months of heavy use. 69% of patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. When presenting to the ED, all had vomiting, 81% had nausea, 81% had abdominal pain, and 30% reported weight loss. Investigations done included venous blood gas (30%), pregnancy test in females (84%), liver enzymes (57%), pelvic or abdominal ultrasound (19%), abdominal X-ray (19%), and CT head (5%). 89% of patients received treatment in the ED with 81% receiving anti-emetics, 68% receiving intravenous (IV) fluids, and 22% receiving analgesics. Normal saline was the most used IV fluid (80%) and ondansetron was the most used anti-emetic (90%). Cannabis was suspected to account for symptoms in 74%, with 31% of these given the formal diagnosis of CHS. 62% of patients had another visit to the ED within 30 days (prior to or post sentinel visit), 59% of these for similar symptoms. Conclusion: This study of pediatric CHS reveals unique findings including a preponderance of female patients, a majority that consume cannabis daily, and weight loss reported in nearly one third. Many received extensive workups and most had multiple clustered visits to the ED.
Chapter 4 addresses the deceitfulness of violent speech. The psalmist reflects deep anxieties about the persistent scheming of the wicked. According to many psalms and proverbs, scheming is the constitutive quality of violent acts. More than the swinging club or shooting arrows of the wicked, it is their speech that occupies many biblical writers. I suggested that in poetic and wisdom texts, scheming is often considered part of the act of violence itself. The preoccupation with scheming reflects how biblical writers thought about the problem of violence (it is deceitful and often begins with speech). I argued that scheming was not simplistically prior to ‘real’ physical violence. Rather, it described a form of violence that afflicted the godly, and was something from which the petitioner sought protection. The concern with scheming enemies also reflects a desire for divine intervention before violence achieves its full effect. Finally, the concern with the enemy’s verbal scheming highlighted the re-expressibility of violent acts. They could be re-enacted in prayer as a provocation for God to act.
How we think about violence has changed throughout time. Consider the category ‘domestic violence’. In Colonial America the horrors of wife-beating were categorized as ‘wife-disciplining’. With the exception of Puritan law, corporal discipline of one’s spouse was, tragically, considered a legitimate means by which a husband exercised his authority and ‘chastised’ his wife.1 The application of the term ‘violence’, with its negatively charged overtones, to the act of ‘wife-disciplining’ would have been considered a confusion of categories for many husbands. Americans considered wife-disciplining to be part of the husband’s legitimate ‘regime of mastery’ that he exercised over his wife. Corporal punishment was his prerogative.2 Heather Duerre Humann points out that even with the eventual criminalization of spousal abuse the conceptual category ‘domestic violence’ hardly received mention in literature on the family and the ‘theorization of the family’ until the 1980s.3 In early America, even after tort reform, beating one’s wife fell into the category of illicit forms of wife-disciplining, and not into a super-category called violence. The category ‘domestic violence’ eventually followed the reduction of the category ‘disciplining’ (and ‘correcting’ or ‘chastising’) and many years later the expansion of violence into a category that included beating one’s wife.4
The impurity of violence constitutes our fourth ‘grammar’ for speaking about the problem of violence across the Hebrew Bible. According to several biblical texts, shed blood defiles. Objects of this defilement include land, humans, and, in some instances, the divine name itself. Examples of bloodshed’s defiling capacities appear variously across Priestly and Priestly inspired texts in Leviticus, Numbers, and Ezekiel, though the conception itself ranges more widely in the Hebrew Bible. According to the author of Lamentations 4, for instance, Israel’s prophets and priests became polluted because they ‘shed [innocent] blood in the midst of [Zion]’ (4:13–14). The psalmist states that the Israelites had ‘poured out innocent blood … and the land was polluted’ (Ps 106:39). Isaiah proclaims that the people had ‘shed blood on [their] hands’ and therefore their sacrificial offerings were rejected (1:15).
Chapter 9 begins Part IV of the book, which analyses violence as a problem of impurity. This chapter focuses on what the grammar of impurity enabled biblical writers to say about the affront of violence. It draws on the ritual insights of Catherine Bell (via William Gilders), the metaphor theory insights of Joseph Lam, and the cognitive research of Thomas Kazen and Richard Beck. Psalm 106 describes the impure consequences of ‘mixing’ with the nations that Israel failed to expel from the land. Practices like child sacrifice polluted the land and people, and led to exile. Bloodshed, in this poetic retelling, disintegrated the sacred order that bound together Yhwh, the people, and the land. Isaiah 1 insists that entrance into Yhwh’s presence demanded social as well as ritual purity, and even suggests social means of ‘purifying’ from bloodshed. Lamentations 4 attributes exile to the bloodshed in the ‘midst’ of Jerusalem, and describes the people as those defiled among the nations. For Ezekiel, bloodshed was an affront to Yhwh’s name and sanctity in the land. Finally, according to Numbers 35, blood from homicides polluted the land. As such, it was a threat to the ongoing presence of Yhwh in the land.
Chapter 6 examines the outcry of the victim of violence. Understanding the formal or informal legal framework and ancient legal discourse around violence also helps us grasp with greater specificity the preoccupation among biblical writers with the ‘outcry’ of violence, the ‘violent witness’, and the receptivity of the responsible party (often Yhwh). These concerns each operate differently, but together highlight a central and driving concern with voicing – or revoicing – the otherwise unnoticed evil of violence, and setting it within a framework of appeal (usually prayer) to one with the capacity or responsibility to intervene and restore order. The preoccupation with verbal appeal via distress signals like the outcry highlight the fact that ancient Israel was not a legislative society. In other words, individuals did not, in the first place, appeal to laws for justice. While the Hebrew Bible does preserve legal codes, they were hardly ever the basis for judicial rulings. Instead, individuals had recourse to individuals who embody legal custom, and who, by community standards, act justly insofar as they fulfil their expected roles. This relational nature of justice meant that cries for justice to a judge or avenger were both morally driven and, to be effective, needed to be rhetorically persuasive.
Having examined ecological and moral discourse about violence, we turn now toward judicial portrayals of the problem of violence. Given the breadth of legal literature in the Hebrew Bible, the wide range of non-legal texts that exhibit such themes, and the voluminous secondary literature on this topic, our study on violence will focus on the relationship between the outcry and the violence it signposts as a window into the justice grammar of violence. We will also look at the way that judicial conceptions of violence relate to the land.
Thus far we have focused on an ecological grammar of violence, but there are other ways we can examine biblical conceptions of the problem of violence. Some are less cosmic in scope, and focus more specifically on the ways that violence stems from flaws in one’s speech, a topic that finds frequent mention in biblical discussions of moral character. ‘Those who seek my life speak destruction’, says the psalmist; ‘They murmur treacheries all day long.’ The Hebrew Bible offers a rich variety of expression about the relationship between one’s moral character and violence. By moral character, I refer to the ‘sum and range of specifically ethical qualities or traits the individual or community possesses’.1 Concerns about moral character vary across biblical literature, and are arranged according to particular cultural priorities. Anne Stewart rightly contends that ‘the concept of character displays certain values that a society privileges and its assumptions about what it means to be human’. It follows that ‘the study of character is inevitably a study of the larger moral culture in which it is rooted’.2 Attending to the varied grammar of moral character will involve analysis of the ways that different authors organize their moral worlds. Particular moral values will step into the foreground in some bodies of literature, and recede in others. Moreover, those values concerning violence will be arranged in relation to other values in specific ways, just as the values of freedom and equality might take centre stage in contemporary American culture, and become intrinsically linked. Those ways of organizing the moral world are widely varied within the Hebrew Bible, and attention to the nuances of each biblical genre is beyond the pale of this study. For our purposes, we will take a selection of texts from several biblical genres, with a focus on the presentation of moral character in Proverbs, and related presentations in Psalms.
Chapter 5 explores the violence of arrogant speech. If scheming was considered a hidden form of verbal violence, gloating and taunting are its public forms. I focus first on ways that enemies join themselves to – and thus become complicit in – acts of violence through gloating. Edom is an example. Edom joined in the Babylonian violence against Judah and was held liable. When describing violent acts, biblical writers also tend to fixate on the taunts that accompany them. They are the verbal dimension of public acts of violence. In taunting, the enemy brings another into a state of reproach and seeks recognition for that act of verbal violence. In turn, that verbal expression of violence plays an important role in characterizing the moral affront of the boastfully violent against the protective prerogatives of Yhwh, and against his rightful claims to power.