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From a conditional adaptation vantage point, early life caregiving adversity likely enhances aspects of cognition needed to manage interpersonal threats. Yet, research examining early life care and offspring cognition predominantly relies upon experiments including affectively neutral stimuli, with findings generally interpreted as “early-life caregiving adversity is, de facto, ‘bad’ for cognitive performance.” Here, in a Southeast Asian sample, we examined observed maternal sensitivity in infancy and cognitive performance 3 years later as preschoolers took part in three tasks, each involving both a socioemotional (SE) and non-socioemotional (NSE) version: relational memory (n = 236), cognitive flexibility (n = 203), and inhibitory control (n = 255). Results indicate the relation between early life caregiving adversity and memory performance significantly differs (Wald test = 7.67, (1), P = 0.006) depending on the SE versus NSE context, with maternal sensitivity in infancy highly predictive of worse memory for SE stimuli, and amongst girls, also predictive of better memory when NSE stimuli are used. Results concerning inhibitory control, as well as cognitive flexibility in girls, also tentatively suggest the importance of considering the SE nature of stimuli when assessing relations between the caregiving environment and cognitive performance. As not all approaches to missing data yielded similar results, implications for statistical approaches are elaborated. We conclude by considering how an adaptation-to-context framework approach may aid in designing pedagogical strategies and well-being interventions that harness pre-existing cognitive strengths.
Insomnia is a common, distressing, and impairing psychological outcome experienced by informal caregivers (ICs) of patients with cancer. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) and acupuncture both have known benefits for patients with cancer, but such benefits have yet to be evaluated among ICs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effects of CBT-I and acupuncture among ICs with moderate or greater levels of insomnia.
Participants were randomized to eight sessions of CBT-I or ten sessions of acupuncture.
Results highlighted challenges of identifying interested and eligible ICs and the impact of perception of intervention on retention and likely ultimately outcome.
Significance of the results
Findings suggest preliminary support for non-pharmacological interventions to treat insomnia in ICs and emphasize the importance of matching treatment modality to the preferences and needs of ICs.
Through diversity of composition, sequence, and interfacial structure, hybrid materials greatly expand the palette of materials available to access novel functionality. The NSF Division of Materials Research recently supported a workshop (October 17–18, 2019) aiming to (1) identify fundamental questions and potential solutions common to multiple disciplines within the hybrid materials community; (2) initiate interfield collaborations between hybrid materials researchers; and (3) raise awareness in the wider community about experimental toolsets, simulation capabilities, and shared facilities that can accelerate this research. This article reports on the outcomes of the workshop as a basis for cross-community discussion. The interdisciplinary challenges and opportunities are presented, and followed with a discussion of current areas of progress in subdisciplines including hybrid synthesis, functional surfaces, and functional interfaces.
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) refers to the transfer of genetic information (alleles) from one plant to another compatible plant. With the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds, PMGF plays an important role in the transfer of resistance alleles from HR to susceptible weeds; however, little attention is given to this topic. The objective of this work was to review reproductive biology, PMGF studies, and interspecific hybridization, as well as potential for herbicide resistance alleles to transfer in the economically important broadleaf weeds including common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, horseweed, kochia, Palmer amaranth, and waterhemp. The PMGF studies involving these species reveal that transfer of herbicide resistance alleles routinely occurs under field conditions and is influenced by several factors, such as reproductive biology, environment, and production practices. Interspecific hybridization studies within Amaranthus and Ambrosia spp. show that herbicide resistance allele transfer is possible between species of the same genus but at relatively low levels. The widespread occurrence of HR weed populations and high genetic diversity is at least partly due to PMGF, particularly in dioecious species such as Palmer amaranth and waterhemp compared with monoecious species such as common lambsquarters and horseweed. Prolific pollen production in giant ragweed contributes to PMGF. Kochia, a wind-pollinated species can efficiently disseminate herbicide resistance alleles via both PMGF and tumbleweed seed dispersal, resulting in widespread occurrence of multiple HR kochia populations. The findings from this review verify that intra- and interspecific gene flow can occur and, even at a low rate, could contribute to the rapid spread of herbicide resistance alleles. More research is needed to determine the role of PMGF in transferring multiple herbicide resistance alleles at the landscape level.
To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight.
Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteristic data were analysed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014. We used the National Cancer Institute method to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from foods and dietary supplements for eleven micronutrients of potential concern and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score.
Older adults aged ≥60 years (n 2969) were categorised by sex and body weight status, using standard BMI categories. Underweight individuals (n 47) were excluded due to small sample size.
A greater percentage of obese older adults compared with their healthy-weight counterparts was at risk of inadequate Mg (both sexes), Ca, vitamin B6 and vitamin D (women only) intakes. The proportion of those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 40 nmol/l was higher in obese (12 %) than in healthy-weight older women (6 %). Mean overall HEI-2015 scores were 8·6 (men) and 7·1 (women) points lower in obese than in healthy-weight older adults. In addition, compared with healthy-weight counterparts, obese older adults were more likely to self-report fair/poor health, use ≥ 5 medications and have limitations in activities of daily living and cardio-metabolic risk factors; and obese older women were more likely to be food-insecure and have depression.
Our findings suggest that obesity may coexist with micronutrient inadequacy in older adults, especially among women.
Liver dysfunction, associated with morbidity and mortality, is common in patients with CHD. We investigate risk factors for and outcomes of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery.
Materials and methods:
In a retrospective analysis of neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution between January 2013 and December 2017, we identified those with post-operative conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. We tested various demographic and surgical risk factors, and use of post-operative interventions, for an association with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. We also tested hyperbilirubinaemia for association with post-operative mortality and prolonged length of stay.
We identified 242 post-operative admissions, of which 45 (19%) had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. The average conjugated bilirubin level in this group was 2.0 mg/dl versus 0.3 mg/dl for peers without hyperbilirubinaemia. The post-operative use of both extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 4.97, 95% CI 1.89–13.5, p = 0.001) and total parenteral nutrition (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.34–7.17, p = 0.010) was associated with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. No demographic variable analysed was found to be a risk factor. Hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with higher odds of mortality (OR 3.74, 95% CI 2.69–13.8, p = 0.005) and prolonged length of stay (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.02–7.97, p = 0.005), which were independent of other risk factors.
We identified the post-operative use of total parenteral nutrition and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as risk factors for hyperbilirubinaemia. These patients were more likely to experience morbidity and mortality than control peers. As such, bilirubin may be marker for elevated risk of poor post-operative outcomes and should be more frequently measured after cardiac surgery.
This paper presents a novel dual-band (DB) dual-polarized (DP) shared aperture antenna with high isolation by using a combination of microstrip dipoles and dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) for S and C bands, respectively. In the S band, two sets of proximity coupled stacked microstrip dipoles which crossed at the center are employed to achieve dual-linear polarization (DLP) and obtain desired bandwidth (BW), isolation, and pure polarization. The rectangle DRA with hybrid feed is selected as the C band element for its advantages of small base area and high isolation, and a 2 × 2 array is presented with the “pair-wise” anti-phase feed technique to achieve a low cross-polarized level. Moreover, benefited from the back feed scheme, the proposed antenna has a symmetrical structure and has the potential of expanding into a larger aperture. The proposed antenna has been manufactured and measured, and the results agree well with simulations, which prove the validity of the proposed design.
This study explores the effects of a group psychoeducations family intervention for individuals with schizophrenia and their family.
A cluster randomized controlled trial design was employed.A total of 97 patients with schizophrenia and their relatives were recruited from two street and divided into two groups.The groups consisted of a group psychoeducational family intervention group and a control group.A 12-month follow-up study was conducted.
The psychoeducational family intervention group attained a better knowledge gain related to mental illness and an increase in treatment compliance compared to the control group.Family attitudes toward the patient were positively related to the patient's clinical outcome.Family attitudes improved after 12 months of intervention.The clinical outcomes of family intervention group were enhanced and the relapse rate was significantly decreased as well.There was an increased readmission rate in the group family intervention may be due to better access to health care.Although there were no differences in overall social function,there were improvements in the specific components of marital role and care of self for the family intervention group.The patient's negative influence on society in the family intervention group decreased after 12 months of intervention.
The group psychoeducational family intervention played a important role in improving the relatives’ knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards the patients.The intervention promoted the patient's treatment compliance, decreased the relapse rate,improved clinical outcomes and social function.we think the group psychoeducational family intervention can provide the basis for future research and mental health practice in China.
To understood the influence of group psychotherapy to crisis frangibility and coping style in community residents, seek the methods and value of community psychological coping intervention, and provide the basis of psychological theory and practice for the work of community mental health.
The scale of crisis frangibility and BCQ were employed to evaluate and compare the mental state before and after intervention.
1) Crisis frangibility of residents was negatively correlated with positive coping, positively correlated with negative coping.
2) After group psychotherapy, scores of scale for crisis vulnerability and negative coping droped.
3) Through the regression model analysis, the linear relationship between positive coping factor and the crisis vulnerable is closest.
Group psychotherapy in community is a effective method to reduce resident's crisis frangibility, and the setup of experimental model has provided the theory and the practice basis for development psychology counseling in community.
To understood the influence of group psychotherapy to crisis frangibility and coping style in community residents,seek the methods and value of community psychological coping intervention,and provide the basis of psychological theory and practice for the work of community mental health.
The scale of crisis frangibility and BCQ were employed to evaluate and compare the mental state before and after intervention.
1) Crisis frangibility of residents was negatively correlated with positive coping,positively correlated with negative coping.
2) After group psychotherapy,scores of scale for crisis vulnerability and negative coping droped.
3) Through the regression model analysis, the linear relationship between positive coping factor and the crisis vulnerable is closest.
Group psychotherapy in community is a effective method to reduce resident's crisis frangibility,and the setup of experimental model has provided the theory and the practice basis for development psychology counseling in community.
Somatization is a common symptom of depression. Somatization is also related to sleep problem including insomnia.Depression is the one of the most common cuase of insomnia. Therefore, it would be needed to investigate the interaction between depression, insomnia and somatization.
To investigate the independent effects of major depressive disorder (MDD) and insomnia on somatization.
To compare somatization of primary insomnia, MDD with insomnia, MDD without insomnia, and normal controls.
A total of 181 participants without serious medical problem were recruited. Subjects were divided into 4 groups based on the SCID-IV and ICD-10 insomnia criteria:
1) normal controls,
2) primary insomnia,
3) MDD without insomnia, and
4) MDD with insomnia.
The somatization subscores of the SCL-90-R were completed by participants.
There were significant between-group differences in somatization (F=25.30, p< 0.001). MDD with insomnia showed higher somatization compared to normal controls (p< 0.001), primary insomnia (p=0.01), or MDD without insomnia (p< 0.001). Primary insomnia had higher somatization than normal controls (p< 0.01), while there was no significant difference between MDD without insomnia and normal controls. Presence of insomnia predicted higher somatization (beta=0.44, p< 0.001), while there was only non-significant association between MDD and somatization (beta=0.14, p=0.08).
In the current study, insomnia was associated with somatization independently from major depression. Subjects with primary insomnia showed higher somatization. Within MDD patients, presence of insomnia was related to higher somatization. Our finding suggests that insomnia may partly mediate the relationship between depression and somatization.
Two upper Middle Permian palaeosols, consisting of coal and pyrite intercalated with a 20 cm thick limestone, were found near Mount Emei in the SW Sichuan Basin, China. The macro- and micromorphology and physico-chemical properties, in conjunction with the mineralogical composition of the palaeosol horizons were investigated. This type of palaeosol is common within the Permian intertidal facies of the Upper Yangtze Craton. The section reflects fluctuations within the range of 0–25 m in relative sea-level, with the depositional environment changing from shallow-marine to littoral, followed by tidal-flat to littoral, and finally to continental volcanic rocks, based on a combination of palaeopedological and carbonate microfacies analyses. Such short-term relative sea-level fluctuations in late Middle Permian times in the SW Sichuan Basin of South China are consistent with the long-term falling trend on a global scale in late Middle Permian times, and may be related to regionally variable subsidence and global cooling. The combination of coastal palaeosol and carbonate microfacies analyses is proposed as an additional tool for estimating the amplitude of sea-level changes.
Pro-vitamin A carotenoids namely α-, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin have potential roles in neurocognitive development, but current literature on these carotenoids mainly focused on preventing cognitive decline in the elderly. This study examined the associations of maternal plasma pro-vitamin A carotenoids concentrations with offspring cognitive development up to 54 months in the GUSTO mother-offspring cohort study.
Materials and Methods
Maternal plasma pro-vitamin A carotenoids concentrations at delivery were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. At age 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III) was used to assess children's development for the following domains: cognitive, receptive and expressive language, and fine and gross motor. At age 54 months, the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-2) was used to assess children's verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Associations of maternal pro-vitamin A carotenoids with offspring cognitive development at each time point were examined in 419 mother-offspring pairs using linear regressions adjusted for confounders (e.g. maternal demographics, antenatal mental health and breastfeeding duration).
Median (IQR) maternal plasma concentrations (mg/L) were: α-carotene 0.052 (0.032–0.081), β-carotene 0.189 (0.134–0.286), and β-cryptoxanthin 0.199 (0.123–0.304). In 24 months old infants, higher maternal β-cryptoxanthin (per SD increment) were associated with higher scores in most of BSID-III domains: cognitive [β 0.18, (0.08, 0.28) SD], receptive language [β 0.17 (0.07, 0.27) SD], fine motor [β 0.16 (0.06, 0.27) SD], and gross motor [β 0.16 (0.06, 0.27) SD]. Additionally, a 1-SD increment in maternal β-carotene concentrations were associated with 0.16 SD higher scores in BSID-III cognitive domain (95%: 0.04, 0.28), which was attenuated after adjusting for breastfeeding duration. No significant associations were observed between maternal α-carotene concentrations and BSID-III in children at 24 months of age, or between maternal pro-vitamin A carotenoids and KBIT-2 in children at 54 months of age.
Our study provides novel data suggesting a role of maternal pro-vitamin A carotenoids, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in offspring early cognitive development. This adds support to the importance of consuming sufficient amounts of red- and orange-coloured fruit and vegetables (rich sources of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene) during pregnancy. Further studies are required in other mother-offspring cohort with larger sample sizes, and intervention trials to confirm an effect of pro-vitamin A carotenoids on neurocognitive development.
We return to the long-standing question ‘Who owns the assets in a defined benefit pension plan?’ Unlike earlier studies, we condition the market's assessment of implicit property rights on the sponsoring firm's financial health. Valuations of financially strong firms, and those that are strengthening, are more responsive to pension plan funding. For these firms, each extra dollar of net plan assets is valued at between $0.50 and $1.00. In contrast, for weak and weakening firms, valuation effects are statistically indistinguishable from zero. This result is consistent with the higher likelihood that they will renege on their pension obligations.
Like any therapy, acupuncture is effective for some patients, while not helpful for others. Understanding from a patients' perspective what makes one respond or not to acupuncture can help guide further intervention development. This study aimed to identify factors that influence the perception of acupuncture's therapeutic effect among cancer survivors with insomnia.
We conducted post-treatment semi-structured interviews with cancer survivors who were randomized to the acupuncture group in a clinical trial for the treatment of insomnia. Survivors were categorized into Responders and Non-Responders to acupuncture treatment based on the change in the Insomnia Severity Index with a reduction of eight points or greater as the cut-off for the response. An integrated approach to data analysis was utilized by merging an a priori set of codes derived from the key ideas and a set of codes that emerged from the data through a grounded theory approach. Codes were examined for themes and patterns.
Among 28 cancer survivors interviewed, 18 (64%) were classified as Responders. Participants perceived the ability to respond to acupuncture as dependent on treatment that effectively: (1) alleviated co-morbidities contributing to insomnia, (2) supported sleep hygiene practices, and (3) provided a durable therapeutic effect. Acupuncture treatment that did not address one of these themes often detracted from positive treatment outcomes and diminished perceived benefit from acupuncture.
Significance of results
We identified patient-perceived contributors to response to acupuncture, such as co-morbid medical conditions, adequate support for sleep hygiene practices, and temporary therapeutic relief. Addressing these factors may improve the overall effectiveness of acupuncture for insomnia.
Single-crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) grown by various techniques can exhibit hillock defects on the surface when sub-optimal growth conditions are employed. The defects act as nonradiative recombination centers and limit solar cell performance. In this paper, we applied near-field transport imaging to study hillock defects in a GaAs thin film. On the same defects, we also performed near-field cathodoluminescence, standard cathodoluminescence, electron-backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. We found that the luminescence intensity around the hillock area is two orders of magnitude lower than on the area without hillock defects in the millimeter region, and the excess carrier diffusion length is degraded by at least a factor of five with significant local variation. The optical and transport properties are affected over a significantly larger region than the observed topography and crystallographic and chemical compositions associated with the defect.
Evidence on long-term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-month-old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26–28 weeks’ gestation; infant cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III at 24 months, for 443 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. Linear regressions adjusted for key confounders examined associations of maternal vitamin B12 with cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor subscales. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamin B12 with folate or vitamin B6 insufficiencies on child’s cognition was explored. Average maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations was 220·5 ± 80·5 pmol/l; 15 % and 41 % of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/l) and insufficient (148–220·9 pmol/l), respectively. Infants of mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency had 0·42 (95 % CI −0·70, −0·14) sd lower cognitive scores, compared with infants of mothers with sufficient vitamin B12. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamins B12 and B6 insufficiencies was associated with 0·37 (95 % CI −0·69, −0·06) sd lower cognitive scores in infants compared with infants of mothers sufficient in both vitamins. No significant associations were observed with other subscales. Study findings suggest the possible need to ensure adequate vitamin B12 during pregnancy. The impact of co-occurrence of maternal B-vitamins insufficiencies on early cognitive development warrants further investigation.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with antipsychotic treatment. RE KINECT (NCT03062033), a real-world study of outpatients prescribed antipsychotics, was designed to identify the presence of possible TD and characterize the impact of involuntary movements on functioning and quality of life. Data from RE-KINECT were used to compare the impact of possible TD in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder [SZD] versus mood/other psychiatric disorders [Mood].
Adults with ≥3months of lifetime exposure to antipsychotics and ≥1 psychiatric disorder were recruited. The presence of possible TD was based on clinicians’ observation of involuntary movements in 4 body regions (head, trunk, upper extremities, and lower extremities). Baseline outcomes included demographics, medication history, location/severity of abnormal movements, impact of abnormal movements on daily activities, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the EuroQoL 5-Dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L).
Of 204 patients with clinician-confirmed possible TD, 111 (54.4%) had a SZD diagnosis and 93 (45.6%) had a mood/other psychiatric diagnosis. Significant differences found between groups (Mood vs SZD) included: mean age (56.9 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0263); male sex (33.3% vs 62.2%; P<0.0001); African-American race (7.5% vs 26.1%; P=0.0005); mean lifetime exposure to antipsychotics (9.5 vs 19.5 years; P<0.0001); and percentage of patients currently taking ≥2 psychiatric medications (93.5% vs 79.3%; P=0.0093). Based on clinician observation, there were no significant differences between diagnosis groups in the number of body regions impacted by abnormal movements, maximum severity score across all 4 regions, or patient awareness of possible TD. Over 30% of patients in both groups reported that involuntary movements had “some” or “a lot” of impact on their ability to continue usual activities, be productive, and socialize. No significant differences between the diagnosis groups (Mood vs SZD) were found for mean SDS total score (12.8 vs 10.8), SDS domain scores (work/school [4.1 vs 4.2], social life [4.3 vs 3.7], family life [4.1 vs 3.5]), EQ-5D-5L utility score (0.68 vs 0.74), or EQ-5D-5L health state VAS (64.8 vs 68.5).
In this cohort of outpatients with possible TD, those with Mood disorders were more likely to be older, female, and white than patients with SZD. The ability to function and quality of life were equally impaired in both groups. Further studies on the impact of TD are needed.
Funding Acknowledgements: Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
Nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) with grain size ranging between 59 and 386 nm was produced via powder metallurgy and heat treatment. The as-sintered HEA exhibited two face-centered cubic (FCC) phases (CoCrFeNi-rich and Cu-rich phases) and a small grain size (59 nm), whereas the alloy after heat treatment at 1000 °C exhibited a CoCuFeNi-rich phase with FCC structure and relatively larger grain size (386 nm). Moreover, the yield strength decreased from 1930 to 883 MPa, and plastic strain to failure increased by 8–32%. In terms of microstructural evolution, grain boundary strengthening coupled with lattice distortion was the dominant strengthening mechanism for NC HEAs. Furthermore, the coefficient for boundary strengthening was higher in the HEAs than in the corresponding pure elemental metals with FCC structure, possibly because of significant lattice distortion. The UFG HEAs exhibited high strength and good ductility because of the activation of dislocation.