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An examination of invasive procedure cancellations found that the lack of pre-procedural oral screening was a preventable cause, for children with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to implement an oral screening tool within the paediatric cardiology clinic, with referral to paediatric dental providers for positive screens. The target population were children aged ≥6 months to <18 years old, being referred for cardiac procedures.
The quality implementation framework method was used for this study design. The multi-modal intervention included education, audit and feedback, screening guidelines, environmental support, and interdisciplinary collaboration. Baseline rates for oral screenings were determined by retrospective chart audit from January 2018 to January 2019 (n = 211). Provider adherence to the oral screening tool was the outcome measure. Positive oral screens, resulting in referral to the paediatric dental clinic, were measured as a secondary outcome. Provider adherence rates were used as a process measure.
Data collected over 14 weeks showed a 29% increase in documentation of oral screenings prior to referral, as compared to the retrospective chart audit. During the study period, 13% of completed screenings were positive (n = 5). Provider compliance for the period was averaged at 70% adherence.
A substantial increase in pre-procedural oral screenings by paediatric cardiologists was achieved using the quality implementation framework and targeted interventions.
To what extent does inadequate market regulation contribute to poor health outcomes? A series of prominent scandals involving harmful medical devices has made improving the regulation of these devices an urgent problem for the European Union (EU). This is, however, a specific example of a general phenomenon. The EU remains first and foremost a large and integrated market within which the EU institutions have considerable regulatory authority. Even if there is little EU commitment to a health or social policy agenda, its use of that regulatory authority shapes health care cost and quality and should be understood as health policy. We use data from EU-level and national policy documents to analyse the EU's current regulatory framework for medical devices and assess its likely future efficacy. Despite revising the medical devices directive to require more stringent pre-authorization requirements for high-risk medical devices and improvements in post-market surveillance, the key underlying problems of market fragmentation and patient safety persist. Without strong and consistent support for the implementation of the new directive, the likely result is the status quo, with significant consequences for health in Europe.
Fat metabolism is an important and complex biochemical reaction in vivo and is regulated by many factors. Recently, the findings on high expression of fibroblast growth factor-16 (FGF16) in brown adipose tissue have led to an interest in exploring its role in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The study cloned the goat’s FGF16 gene 624 bp long, including the complete open reading frame that encodes 207 amino acids. We found that FGF16 expression is highest in goat kidneys and hearts, followed by subcutaneous fat and triceps. Moreover, the expression of FGF16 reached its peak on the 2nd day of adipocyte differentiation (P < 0.01) and then decreased significantly. We used overexpression and interference to study the function of FGF16 gene in goat intramuscular preadipocytes. Silencing of FGF16 decreased adipocytes lipid droplet aggregation and triglyceride synthesis. This is in contrast to the situation where FGF16 is overexpressed. Furthermore, knockdown of FGF16 also caused down-regulated expression of genes associated with adipocyte differentiation including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (P < 0.01), fatty acid-binding protein-2 (P < 0.01) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (P < 0.05), but the preadipocyte factor-1 was up-regulated. At the same time, the genes adipose triglyceride lipase (P < 0.01) and hormone-sensitive lipase (P < 0.05) associated with triglyceride breakdown were highly expressed. Next, we locked the fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) through the protein interaction network and interfering with FGF16 to significantly reduce FGFR4 expression. It was found that the expression profile of FGFR4 in adipocyte differentiation was highly similar to that of FGF16. Overexpression and interference methods confirmed that FGFR4 and FGF16 have the same promoting function in adipocyte differentiation. Finally, using co-transfection technology, pc-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4, siRNA2-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4 were combined to treat adipocytes separately. It was found that in the case of overexpression of FGF16, cell lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with increasing interference concentration. In the case of interference with FGF16, lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a downward trend with the increase of interference concentration. These findings illustrated that FGF16 mediates adipocyte differentiation via receptor FGFR4 expression and contributed to further study of the functional role of FGF16 in goat fat formation.
Within the scope of Design for Sustainable Behaviour, the connection between behavioural change strategies and design idea generation has received limited attention. This paper highlights metaphorical thinking in product design to stimulate sustainable behaviour. In particular, the current study proposes a metaphor-based design method to guide designers on how to associate product features with behavioural and experiential cues through metaphors. We next report two design cases to evaluate this method. In the end, the shortcomings of current research and future developments are also discussed.
Surface waves called meniscus waves often appear in systems that are close to the capillary length scale. Since the meniscus shape determines the form of the meniscus waves, the resulting streaming circulation has features distinct from those caused by other capillary–gravity waves recently reported in the literature. In the present study, we produce symmetric and antisymmetric meniscus shapes by controlling boundary wettability and excite meniscus waves by oscillating the meniscus vertically. The symmetric and antisymmetric configurations produce different surface capillary–gravity wave modes and streaming flow structures. The root-mean-square speed of the streaming circulation increases with the second power of the forcing amplitude in both configurations. The flow symmetry of streaming circulation is retained under the symmetric meniscus, while it is lost under the antisymmetric meniscus. The streaming circulation pattern beneath the meniscus observed in our experiments is qualitatively explained using the method introduced by Nicolás & Vega (Fluid Dyn. Res., vol. 32 (4), 2003, pp. 119–139) and Gordillo & Mujica (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 754, 2014, pp. 590–604).
Introduction: Selecting appropriate patients for hospitalization following emergency department (ED) evaluation of syncope is critical for serious adverse event (SAE) identification. The primary objective of this study is to determine the association of hospitalization and SAE detection using propensity score (PS) matching. The secondary objective was to determine if SAE identification with hospitalization varied by the Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) risk-category. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of two large prospective cohort studies that enrolled adults (age ≥ 16 years) with syncope at 11 Canadian EDs. Patients with a serious condition identified during index ED evaluation were excluded. Outcome was a 30-day SAE identified either in-hospital for hospitalized patients or after ED disposition for discharged patients and included death, ventricular arrhythmia, non-lethal arrhythmia and non-arrhythmic SAE (myocardial infarction, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage). Patients were propensity matched using age, sex, blood pressure, prodrome, presumed ED diagnosis, ECG abnormalities, troponin, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, arrival by ambulance and hospital site. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the interaction between CSRS and SAE detection and we report odds ratios (OR). Results: Of the 8183 patients enrolled, 743 (9.0%) patients were hospitalized and 658 (88.6%) were PS matched. The OR for SAE detection for hospitalized patients in comparison to those discharged from the ED was 5.0 (95%CI 3.3, 7.4), non-lethal arrhythmia 5.4 (95%CI 3.1, 9.6) and non-arrhythmic SAE 6.3 (95%CI 2.9, 13.5). Overall, the odds of any SAE identification, and specifically non-lethal arrhythmia and non-arrhythmia was significantly higher in-hospital among hospitalized patients than those discharged from the ED (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality (p = 1.00) or ventricular arrhythmia detection (p = 0.21). The interaction between ED disposition and CSRS was significant (p = 0.04) and the probability of 30-day SAEs while in-hospital was greater for medium and high risk CSRS patients. Conclusion: In this multicenter prospective cohort, 30-day SAE detection was greater for hospitalized compared with discharged patients. CSRS low-risk patients are least likely to have SAEs identified in-hospital; out-patient monitoring for moderate risk patients requires further study.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) syncope management is extremely variable. We developed practice recommendations based on the validated Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) and outpatient cardiac monitoring strategy with physician input. Methods: We used a 2-step approach. Step-1: We pooled data from the derivation and validation prospective cohort studies (with adequate sample size) conducted at 11 Canadian sites (Sep 2010 to Apr 2018). Adults with syncope were enrolled excluding those with serious outcome identified during index ED evaluation. 30-day adjudicated serious outcomes were arrhythmic (arrhythmias, unknown cause of death) and non-arrhythmic (MI, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage)]. We compared the serious outcome proportion among risk categories using Cochran-Armitage test. Step-2: We conducted semi-structured interviews using observed risk to develop and refine the recommendations. We used purposive sampling of physicians involved in syncope care at 8 sites from Jun-Dec 2019 until theme saturation was reached. Two independent raters coded interviews using an inductive approach to identify themes; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Results: Of the 8176 patients (mean age 54, 55% female), 293 (3.6%; 95%CI 3.2-4.0%) experienced 30-day serious outcomes; 0.4% deaths, 2.5% arrhythmic, 1.1% non-arrhythmic outcomes. The serious outcome proportion significantly increased from low to high-risk categories (p < 0.001; overall 0.6% to 27.7%; arrhythmic 0.2% to 17.3%; non-arrhythmic 0.4% to 5.9% respectively). C-statistic was 0.88 (95%CI0.86–0.90). Non-arrhythmia risk per day for the first 2 days was 0.5% for medium-risk, 2% for high-risk and very low thereafter. We recruited 31 physicians (14 ED, 7 cardiologists, 10 hospitalists/internists). 80% of physicians agreed that low risk patients can be discharged without specific follow-up with inconsistencies around length of ED observation. For cardiac monitoring of medium and high-risk, 64% indicated that they don't have access; 56% currently admit high-risk patients and an additional 20% agreed to this recommendation. A deeper exploration led to following refinement: discharge without specific follow-up for low-risk, a shared decision approach for medium-risk and short course of hospitalization for high-risk patients. Conclusion: The recommendations were developed (with online calculator) based on in-depth feedback from key stakeholders to improve uptake during implementation.
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk for stroke. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society advises patients who are CHADS65 positive should be started on oral anticoagulation (OAC). Our local emergency department (ED) review showed that only 16% of CHADS65 positive patients were started on OAC and that 2% of our patients were diagnosed with stroke within 90 days. We implemented a new pathway for initiation of OAC in the ED (the SAFE pathway). Aim Statement: We report the effectiveness and safety of the SAFE pathway for initiation of OAC in patients treated for AF in the ED. Measures & Design: A multidisciplinary group of physicians and pharmacist developed the SAFE pathway for patients who are discharged home from the ED with a diagnosis of AF. Step 1: contraindications to OAC, Step 2: CHADS65 score, Step 3: OAC dosing if indicated. The pathway triggers referral to AF clinic, family physician letter and follow up call from the ED pharmacist. Patients are followed for 90 days by a structured medical record review and a structured telephone interview. We record persistence with OAC, stroke, TIA, systemic arterial embolism and major bleeding (ISTH criteria). Patient outcomes are fed back to the treating ED physician. Evaluation/ Results: The SAFE pathway was introduced in two EDs in June 2018. In total, 177 patients have had the pathway applied. The median age was 70 (interquartile range (IQR) 61-78), 48% male, median CHADS2 score 2 (IQR 0-2). 19/177 patients (11%) had a contraindication to initiating OAC. 122 patients (69%) had no contraindication to OAC and were CHADS65 positive. Of these 122 patients, 109 were given a prescription for OAC (96 the correct dose, 9 too high a dose and 4 too low a dose). 6 patients declined OAC and the physician did not want to start OAC for 7 patients. 73/122 were contacted by phone at 90 days, 15 could not be reached and 34 have not completed 90 days of follow up since their ED visit. Of the 73 who were reached by phone after 90 days, 65 were still taking an anticoagulant. To date, 1 patient who declined OAC (CHADS2 score of 2) had a stroke within 90 days and one patient prescribed OAC had a gastrointestinal bleed. Discussion/Impact: The SAFE pathway appears safe and effective although we continue to evaluate and improve the process.
A variational framework for the identification and analysis of general nonlinear optimal disturbances in compressible flows is derived. The formulation is based on the compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conserved variables for an ideal gas with temperature-dependent viscosity. A discretely consistent implementation based on generalized coordinates allows the accurate analysis of a wide range of settings. An application in the identification of the optimal disturbances which experience the highest amplification in kinetic energy in pipe flow is presented. At low Mach numbers and moderate initial amplitude, the disturbances undergo a sequence of Orr mechanism, oblique nonlinear interaction and lift-up mechanism, and the energy amplification is consistent with results reported for incompressible flow (Pringle & Kerswell, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 105, 2010, 154502). When the Mach number is increased, the gain in perturbation kinetic energy grows appreciably, and the initial disturbance field becomes increasingly localized. Nonlinear optimal disturbances which are rescaled to higher initial kinetic energy than prescribed in the optimization procedure are demonstrated to evolve into a chaotic state. For a constant time horizon, the initial perturbation energy to reach a high-energy state decreases monotonically with Mach number.
This chapter argues that chronic pain (CP) represents an important and neglected type of disability. CP has important similarities to more familiar physical disabilities, but it cannot be regarded as a “mere difference,” and it fits uncomfortably under standard social models. The case of CP illustrates the need for flexibility in the definition of and social response to disability.
Efficacy of conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depressive disorder (MDD) is limited. The authors report here on an alternative treatment using low energy synchronized TMS (sTMS) at the intrinsic frequency of subjects’ alpha electroencephalogram (EEG).
Establish efficacy and safety profile of sTMS in MDD.
(1) Examine the clinical effectiveness of sTMS.
(2) Identify adverse effects associated with sTMS.
Fifty-two MDD subjects with 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) scores >17 were enrolled into a randomized, sham controlled, double-blind trial. Current medication remained unchanged during the trial. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by HAMD17 administered weekly.
EEGs were recorded at baseline to determine the stimulus frequency and at week 4 to evaluate the physiological effect. sTMS was delivered through three 6000-G cylindrical neodymium magnets synchronously rotating at a rate equal to the subject's intrinsic alpha frequency.
Forty-five subjects completed at least 1 week of treatment and were evaluable. Those who received active treatment had superior clinical response to sham (t = 2.54, P = 0.01), where 55.2% in the active treatment group were clinical responders versus 12.5% in sham (X2 = 7.82, P = 0.005). No significant side effects were reported. The clinical improvement was correlated with the degree of EEG improvement (r = .46, P = 0.009).
A therapeutic effect in MDD subjects can be achieved through administration of sTMS at the subject's alpha EEG frequency. Because of minimal side effects, this appears to be a safe and effective treatment option.
Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of tic disorders (TD) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from several TD imaging studies have supported contradictory conclusions.
To find brain structural differences between children with of TD and the health children and verify the pathogenesis hypothesis of that basal ganglia play an important role in this disorder.
The right handedness, first-episode TD children were chosen. Yale global tic severity scale (YGTSS) was used to assess the tic severity. MRI scan was performed on TD children and the controls. The volumes of caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and total intracranial volume were measured on high resolution MR images. We compared the volumes, relative volumes and asymmetry index, AI between groups.
Totally 11 patients finished this study with two excluded for the unclear image caused by tic and 18 subjects (9 TD patients and 9 controls) were finally analyzed. The right globus pallidus is significantly larger in TD patients. The volumes of left caudate increased significantly in both TD patients and controls. There was no significant difference in asymmetry index between two groups, relative volumes did not correlate significantly with the severity of tic and the course of disease.
The right globus pallidus may be the primary pathological change of TD. Asymmetry indexes between the two groups are not significantly different. The relative volume of any structure of basal ganglia has no significant correlation with the severity of tic and the course of disease.
We evaluated the efficacy of eszopiclone (ESZ) and concurrent escitalopram oxalate (EO) in patients with insomnia and co-morbid GAD.
Patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD and insomnia received 10 weeks of EO 10mg and co-therapy with ESZ 3mg or placebo (PBO) for 8 weeks. For the last 2 weeks, ESZ was replaced with single-blind PBO to evaluate discontinuation effects. Sleep, daytime functioning and anxiety measures were captured during the study.
ESZ+EO improved sleep and daytime functioning at each week and the double-blind period average (p<0.05). At Week 8, significantly more ESZ+EO patients had no clinically meaningful insomnia based on ISI</=7. Significant improvements with ESZ+EO (relative to PBO+EO) were observed in HAM-A total scores each week, and Weeks 4-10 excluding the insomnia item. ESZ+EO was significantly better at every timepoint on CGI-I (p<0.02); CGI-S was not different between treatments after Week 1. Median time to anxiolytic response was reduced with ESZ+EO based on HAM-A and CGI-I. HAM-A response and remission rates at Week 8 were higher with ESZ+EO, and HAM-D17 scores were improved at all timepoints (p<0.004). After eszopiclone discontinuation, there was no evidence of rebound insomnia, and no treatment differences in sleep or daytime function. Significant treatment differences in anxiety and mood were maintained after discontinuation.
In this study, ESZ+EO was well tolerated and associated with improved sleep and daytime function without evidence of tolerance. Improvements in anxiety and mood were observed with ESZ+EO.
Support for this study provided by Sepracor Inc., Marlborough, MA.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have more cognitive impairments. However, the etiologies are not fully clear. Plasma homocysteine levels and vascular burden rise in CKD; meanwhile, high homocysteine levels and vascular factors are known risk factors of dementia in non-CKD patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between homocysteine, vascular burden and cognitive impairment in CKD and to see if the effect of elevated homocysteine on cognitive impairment mediated by vascular factor.
146 patients with CKD and 69 normal comparisons were recruited. Cognitive function was evaluated by comprehensive neuropsychological tests assessing processing speed, executive function, language, visuospatial function, memory, and attention domains. Vascular burden was assessed by Framinghan cardiovascular risk scale (FCRS) which indicates risk of atherosclerotic diseases including stroke.
In controlled analysis, patients with CKD had lower scores in all cognitive domains, and had higher homocysteine levels (18.5±6.4 vs. 9.8±2.9, p< 0.0001) and FCRS(17.0±4.7 vs. 14.0±4.7, p< 0.0001). Among patients with CKD, higher homocysteine levels (p=0.026) were associated with lower score on digit symbol task which is related to processing speed and executive function with controlling for age, sex, education and stage of CKD. The association persisted (p=0.047) after controlling for vascular risks.
Patients with CKD had extensive cognitive impairments. Elevated homocysteine levels may be an risk factor, which is independent of vascular burden, of cognitive impairment on processing speed and executive function. Further studies to investigate if normalization of homocysteine can improve cognitive function will be suggested.
Increasing evidence supports that 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene(5HTTLPR) might associate to bipolar disorder and affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. But the results are discrepant, furthermore, there are no data from Chinese population.
The present study was designed to investigate association between 5HTTLPR and bipolar disorder and affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in the specific Chinese population and add new evidence to the field.
There hundred and five patients with bipolar disorder and 272 normal controls were included in the present case-control study⌧Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego -autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in Chinese was used to assess affective temperament. Chi-square test, T test, Nonparametric test and ANOVA were employed to explore association between 5HTTLPR polymorphism and bipolar disorder and affective temperament of patients with bipolar disorder.
5-HTTLPR L/S polymorphism was associated with bipolar disorder in female (genotype χ2 = 6.769⌧P = 0.034⌧allele χ2 = 6.028⌧P = 0.014) and the S allele was associated with anxious temperament (t = 8.248⌧P = 0.005) in patients with bipolar disorder. the LA allele of 5-HTTLPR rs25531 A/G polymorphism was associated with hyperthymic temperament in patients with bipolar disorder (Z = −2.205⌧P = 0.027).
5-HTTLPR might have an effect on the prevalence of bipolar disorder in female and regulate affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in some degree in Chinese population.
Bioinformatic investigations indicate that has-mir-206 (microRNA-206, miRNA-206) could regulate BDNF protein synthesis by interfering with BDNF mRNA translation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder (BPD).
This study is to investigate whether miRNA-206 gene variants were associated with BPD susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.
342 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I (BPD-I) or type II (BPD-II) and 386 matched health controls were enrolled into this study. the miRNA-206 gene and +/-500bp were selected for gene sequencing. for the case-control genetic comparisons, differences in the genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls were examined using Pearson's χ2 test.
Gene sequencing showed that there are two polymorphisms rs16882131(C/T) and rs62408583 (A/C) located at the upstream of miRNA-206 gene, which are complete linkage disequilibrium. the association analysis showed that there was no significant difference for genotype frequencies (χ2 = 2.075, df = 2, P = 0.354) or for allele frequencies (χ2 = 0.041, df = 1, P = 0.839) between BPD patients and controls. Similarly, no significant difference was found between BPD-I patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 1.411, df = 2, P = 0.494; allele χ2 = 0.380, df = 1, P = 0.538). However, there was significant difference between BPD-II patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 7.933, df = 2, P = 0.019; allele χ2 = 5.403, df = 1, P = 0.020).
Our findings do not support that BPD susceptibility was associated with miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms in the studied Han Chinese population. the association between miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder type II is needed to be carefully interpreted. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the involvement miRNA-206 in the pathophysiology of BPD.
We consider the numerical solution of competitive exothermic and endothermic reactions in the presence of a chaotic advection flow. The resulting behaviour is characterized by a strong dependence on the competitive reaction history. The burnt temperature is not immediately connected to simple enthalpy calculations, so there is a subtlety in the interplay between the major parameters, notably the Damköhler number, the ratio of the heats of exothermic and endothermic reactions, as well as the ratio of their respective activation energies. This paper seeks to explore the way these parameters affect the steady states of these reaction fronts and their stability.
The association between gray matter and cognitive dysfunction in young major depression remains unclear.
To investigate the brain gray matter and the correlation with cognitive function in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
To explore brain structural pathological mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 MDD aged 18-45 year and 46 controls were assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail making test (TMT). Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.
The total number of errors, number of preservative errors, random errors of WSCT in MDD were significantly more than that in controls, and the completion time in the TMT-A and TMT-B was longer than that in controls. MDD showed significant less gray matter volumns than controls in frontal lobe (right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus), parietal lobe (left postcentral gyrus, left paracentral lobule, and bilateral precuneus), temporal lobe (right superior temporal gyrus), and occipital lobe (left superior occipital gyrus). There was a significant negative correlation between left postcentral gyrus and left superior occipital gyrus gray matter density and the TMT-B completion time (r=-0.462, P=0.017; r=-0.448, P=0.022).
The first-episode MDD patient exhibiteded cognitive impairment and showed significant lower gray matter density than controls in frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe. Decreased gray matter density in left postcentral gyrus and left superior occipital gyrus may be involved in the executive dysfunction.
Prior research on body-image-related issues has mainly focused on the relationship between overall body satisfaction and health-related outcomes, particularly among Western women. However, there is still a paucity of information on whether body satisfaction with specific body parts is differentially associated with body-image-related mental distress, especially across gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men in Taiwan.
To Identify the differences by sexual orientation regarding the relationship between satisfaction with specific body parts and body-image-related mental distress among Taiwanese men.
To develop effective interventions to reduce mental distress related to body dissatisfaction in men.
A total of 665 male participants were recruited via a popular electronic bulletin board system frequented by Taiwanese youth.
Increased levels of satisfaction with weight were significantly associated with lower odds of body-image-related mental distress across gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men (AOR=0.38, 0.31, and 0.56, respectively). Gay men who were more satisfied with their height (AOR=0.57) and body fat (AOR=0.28), as well as heterosexual men who were more satisfied with their facial features (AOR=0.51), muscle (AOR=0.53), and body fat (AOR=0.55), were significantly less likely to have body-image-related mental distress than their counterparts.
Higher levels of satisfaction with various specific body parts were associated with reduced risk of body-image-related mental distress. Further, these associations varied differentially across gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men. Future research may explore the possible mechanisms through which satisfaction with specific body parts influences men's body-image-related mental distress. Accordingly, interventions could be tailored for men of different sexual orientations.
In this study, we aimed to identify protein molecules in the hypothalamus in the female rats injected exogenous androgen before sexual differentiation.
Neonatal female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group and control female group. Four neonatal male SD rats were control male group. All animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of testosterone propionate as experimental group or aseptic oil as control. The rats were sacrificed 90 days after the injection and the brains were collected. 2-DE were performed in order to establish profiles of proteome from rat hypothalamus and followed by MALDITOF- TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in rat hypothalamus from experimental group as compared to normal control group.
11 differential spots were cut off from the Silver stained gel, and 9 of the spots were identified, which were Dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K(hnRNP K), Profilin2, Triosephosphate isomerase 1(Tpi 1), Carbonic anhydrase II(CA II), Annexin A3, Protein disulfide isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3), Creatine kinase-B and Secernin 1.
The results of the present study indicate that the development of sexual differentiation may be associated with the alteration in the expression of a large number of cytosolic proteins in the hypothalamus.