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While technology is beneficial in many ways for organizations, it also allows employees a plethora of new methods to engage in workplace mistreatment and other counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Thus, technology’s role in the changing nature of work includes contributing to deleterious organizational and employee wellbeing outcomes. This chapter focuses on newer cyber-CWB and cyber occupational health psychology (C-OHP) constructs that lead to these negative workplace effects, including cyber incivility, cyberbullying, cyberloafing, and cybersecurity behaviors. The extant literature in this nascent area suggests that many of these behaviors occur on a frequent basis in today’s workplace, and we provide recommendations to lessen the occurrence of C-CWB and C-OHP behaviors. We also discuss potential drawbacks of commonly employed deterrents of these behaviors, such as social media screening and workplace monitoring.
From 1971 to 2012, in New York State, years with human Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) were more strongly associated with the presence of Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes infected with the EEE virus (Fisher's exact test, one-sided P = 0.005, 0.03, 0.03) than with Culiseta morsitans, Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens-restuans, Anopheles quadrimaculatus or Anopheles punctipennis (P = 0.05, 0.40, 0.33, 1.00, 1.00). The estimated relative risk of a case in a year in which the virus was detected vs. not detected was 14.67 for Ae. canadensis, 6.38 for Cq. perturbans and 5.50 for Cs. morsitans. In all 5 years with a case, Cs. melanura with the virus was detected. In no year was there a case in the absence of Cs. melanura with the virus. There were 18 years with no case in the presence of Cs. melanura with the virus. Such observations may identify the time of increased risk, and when the methods may be used to prevent or reduce exposure to vector mosquito species in this geographic region.
To characterize the prevalence of and seasonal and regional variation in inpatient antibiotic use among hospitalized US children in 2017–2018.
We conducted a cross-sectional examination of hospitalized children. The assessments were conducted on a single day in spring (May 3, 2017), summer (August 2, 2017), fall (October 25, 2017), and winter (January 31, 2018). The main outcome of interest was receipt of an antibiotic on the study day.
The study included 51 freestanding US children’s hospitals that participate in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS).
This study included all patients <18 years old who were admitted to a participating PHIS hospital, excluding patients who were admitted solely for research purposes.
Of 52,769 total hospitalized children, 19,174 (36.3%) received antibiotics on the study day and 6,575 of these (12.5%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics. The overall prevalence of antibiotic use varied across hospitals from 22.3% to 51.9%. Antibiotic use prevalence was 29.2% among medical patients and 47.7% among surgical patients. Although there was no significant seasonal variation in antibiotic use prevalence, regional prevalence varied, ranging from 32.7% in the Midwest to 40.2% in the West (P < .001). Among units, pediatric intensive care unit patients had the highest prevalence of both overall and broad-spectrum antibiotic use at 58.3% and 26.6%, respectively (P < .001).
On any given day in a national network of children’s hospitals, more than one-third of hospitalized children received an antibiotic, and 1 in 8 received a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Variation across hospitals, setting and regions identifies potential opportunities for enhanced antibiotic stewardship activities.
This chapter details how language socialization (LS) research has contributed to our understanding of learning in classrooms. It describes the methodological and theoretical frameworks that underlie LS theory. It outlines five areas of LS and describes how they relate to classroom discourse: (1) indexicality, (2) practices, (3) ideologies, (4) power, authority, and agency, and (5) participation frameworks. It argues that the LS paradigm provides a unique and specific set of affordances for exploring the social and linguistic development of relative novices and their learning in classrooms involving teachers and peers. It asserts that LS theory and research contribute rich and socially situated understandings of children’s and other novices’ social worlds, their linguistic and social development, the interactions and learning modes that foster this development, and the broader fields of discourse, histories, and communities within which classrooms are situated. The chapter includes an overview of each section and its goals, explaining how each contribution instantiates the LS framework in ways that deepen our understanding of learning and development within classrooms.
Classrooms are dynamic spaces of teaching and learning, where language and culture are intertwined in remarkable ways. The theory of language socialization explores how sociocultural practices in classrooms help to shape language learning and development. This collection is the first of its kind to bring together research on this fascinating concept. It presents ten case studies, based on linguistic and ethnographic research conducted in classrooms located within communities in North America, Europe and India, spanning learners from preschool, to primary and secondary school, to university. Following an introduction that discusses the theory and core concepts of language socialization, the volume is divided into three central themes: socializing values, dispositions, and stances; socializing identities; and language socialization and ideology. Both new and more experienced researchers will appreciate its new insights into how language socialization is carried out across the globe.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.