To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Reliable and affordable technology for collecting and managing livestock production process information is being developed. The advances in data measurement, collection and transfer technology enable us to retrieve information from one or more remote sites to be processed and managed centrally. This opens up the opportunity to advance from open loop, prescriptive production to closed loop systems where factors influencing the actual performance of animals are used to modify and improve their production parameters (feed, environment, medication). We strive from producing animals by predicting what is needed using outdated data, to measuring what is actually happening as they grow, processing this information and acting to optimise animal performance by modifying production parameters in real time.
This paper describes commercially available systems that make possible the retrieval, collection, processing and distribution of near real time production information. Various aspects of production management using this technology are discussed, and examples of how it can be applied to monitor water usage, how it relates to pig performance and how energy usage can be influenced, are considered.
The Rosetta Radio Science Investigations (RSI) experiment was selected by the European Space Agency to be included in the International Rosetta Mission to comet P/Wirtanen (launch in 2003, arrival and operational phase at the comet 2011–2013). The RSI science objectives address fundamental aspects of cometary physics such as the mass and bulk density of the nucleus, the gravity field, non-gravitational forces, the size and shape, the internal structure, the composition and roughness of the nucleus surface, the abundance of large dust grains and the plasma content in the coma and the combined dust and gas mass flux on the orbiter. RSI will make use of the radio subsystem of the Rosetta spacecraft.
Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism.
YouTube is an internet-based repository of user-generated content. This study aimed to determine whether YouTube represented a valid and reliable patient information resource for the lay person on the topic of rhinosinusitis.
The study included the first 100 YouTube videos found using the search term ‘sinusitis’. Videos were graded on their ability to inform the lay person on the subject of rhinosinusitis.
Forty-five per cent of the videos were deemed to provide some useful information. Fifty-five per cent of the videos contained little or no useful facts, 27 per cent of which contained potentially misleading or even dangerous information. Videos uploaded by medical professionals or those from health information websites contained more useful information than those uploaded by independent users.
YouTube appears to be an unreliable resource for accurate and up to date medical information relating to rhinosinusitis. However, it may provide some useful information if mechanisms existed to direct lay people to verifiable and credible sources.
Improved coral cultivation will facilitate the reduction of wild harvesting, reef restoration, preservation of biodiversity, and the use of corals as model experimental organisms. In this study, we examine species-specific responses in growth and survival of corals from the effects of light, water motion and artificial (i.e. non-living aquarium trade) food supplements. Three species representing distinct, diverse and abundant coral genera were chosen (Montipora capitata(Mc), Porites compressa (Pc) and Pocillopora damicornis (Pd)) for three experiments to examine: (1) the interaction of water flow and light on growth and survival of Mc and Pc; (2) the effects of artificial foods on Mc, Pc and Pd; and (3) the effects of increasing dosage of artificial foods in an open system on Mc and Pc. Pc thrived at the highest light levels with low flow, while Mc exhibited bleaching and reduced growth in the same conditions and grew best in shaded treatments. High constant flow (~11 cm s-1) resulted in slightly less overall growth than low constant flow (~4 cm s-1). Some artificial foods resulted in a significant increase in growth in Mc and Pd, but not in Pc. These combined results suggest that Mc may be more heterotrophic than Pc. This study illustrates that each species has unique requirements for optimal growth conditions that can be determined by relatively simple and low cost experiments, but that ideal conditions for one species might not be generalized to others.
We examined the effect of time after birth and β3-adrenergic agonist (Zeneca D7114) administration on uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) abundance and thermoregulation in the lamb. Forty twin lambs, all born normally at term, were maintained at a cold ambient temperature of between 3 and 8 °C. At 0.5, 1.75, 5.25, 11.25 and 23.25 h after birth eight sets of twins were fed 20 ml of formula milk ± 10 mg kg-1 of β3-adrenergic agonist, and 45 min after feeding brown adipose tissue (BAT) was sampled. Colonic temperature was measured and BAT analysed for UCP1 abundance, GDP-binding to mitochondrial protein (i.e. thermogenic activity) and catecholamine content. Colonic temperature declined between 1.25 and 6 h from 40.2 °C to 39.2 °C and then increased to 39.8 °C at 12 h, but increased after feeding at all ages. UCP1 abundance increased from 1.25 h after birth, to peak at 2 h after birth in controls, compared with 6 h after birth in β3-adrenergic agonist-treated lambs. The level of GDP-binding to mitochondrial protein did not change significantly with age but was increased by β3-adrenergic agonist treatment. The noradrenaline (norepinephrine) content of BAT increased between 1.25 and 12 h after birth, irrespective of β3-adrenergic agonist administration. The total weight of perirenal BAT plus its lipid, protein and mitochondrial protein content declined over the first 6 h of life. UCP1 development continues over the first 24 h of neonatal life, and can be manipulated by β3-adrenergic agonist administration. This may represent one method of improving thermoregulation in newborn lambs. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 65-70.
Background. Little is known about the extent and correlates
of unmet need for mental health
services in community samples of children and adolescents.
Methods. Data were obtained from the 1285 parent/youth
pairs interviewed at four sites in the USA
and Puerto Rico in the Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and
Adolescent Mental Disorders
(MECA) Study. Unmet need was defined to exist if psychopathology and
impairment were present but no mental health services had been received
in the previous 6 months.
Results. Of the total sample, 17·1% had unmet
need. Adjusting for demographic variables, logistic
regression analyses revealed that unmet need was significantly
associated with: indicators of
economic disadvantage, such as being on public assistance and not
being covered by health
insurance; opinions of the parents and children or adolescents that
the latter had poor mental health;
parental psychopathology; poor school grades; and parent-reported access
barriers such as concern
that the child would want to solve the problem unassisted, would refuse
to attend mental health
services, or would be hospitalized or taken away against the parent's
will. No youth-reported access
barriers were significantly associated with unmet need.
Conclusions. The economic correlates of unmet need may attain
increased importance in the light
of current reform in health care financing in the USA. Access may be
facilitated by increasing
parental knowledge of mental health services and enabling children and
adolescents to initiate
contact with services independently of their families.
The aims of the present study were (a) to maintain the structure and function of the small intestine of the piglet after weaning, and (b) to compare the capacity in vivo of sucking and weaned piglets to digest oral boluses of lactose and sucrose and absorb their monosaccharide products. Piglets were fed on cows' whole milk ad libitum every 2 h for 5 d after weaning. Physiological doses of lactose plus fructose (treatment LAC + FRU) and sucrose plus galactose (treatment SUC + GAL) were administered on day 27 of lactation and on the fifth day after weaning, after which time piglets were killed. Villus height and crypt depth were maintained (P > 0·05) by feeding cows' milk after weaning. The areas under the curves (AUC) for galactose and glucose, adjusted for live weight and plasma volume, increased (P < 0·05) after weaning. Despite the enhancement of gut function after weaning, the galactose index (Gall: AUC for galactose ingested as lactose divided by the AUC for the same dose of galactose ingested as the monosaccharide) and fructose index (FruI: AUC for fructose ingested as sucrose divide by the AUC for the same dose of fructose ingested as the monosaccharide), which are indices of digestive and absorptive efficiency, both decreased after weaning. This apparent anomaly may be reconciled by increased growth, and hence surface area, of the small intestine between weaning and slaughter such that ‘total’ digestion and absorption most probably increased despite apparent decreases in GalI and FrnI. Positive correlations (P < 0.05) between villus height and Gall are consistent with the maximum activity of lactase occurring more apically along the villus. Significant linear relationships (P < 0·05) were recorded between villus height at the proximal jejunum and adjusted AUC for galactose and glucose following treatment LAC + FRU, and between villus height at the proximal jejunum and adjusted glucose AUC following treatment SUC + GAL. These relationships suggest that maximum digestion and absorption occurs at increasing distances along the crypt:villus axis in the weaned pig.
Populations of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci collected from the Americas and the Caribbean Basin were examined for non-specific esterases and for the ability to induce characteristic phytotoxic disorders in key assay species as a means of investigating biogeographic diversity. Esterase markers were used to detect polymorphisms among regional B. tabaci populations and to establish the present distribution of B. tabaci biotypes in the region. The A biotype occurred only in contiguous locales in northern Mexico and the southwestern US, while the B biotype was present throughout much of the Caribbean Basin and the US, and in Brazil. Distinct C and D type esterase markers were observed for Costa Rican and Nicaraguan B. tabaci populations, respectively. The 0 or null type population was collected only from Jatropha gossypifolia (L.) in Puerto Rico. Laboratory colonies of the A and the B biotypes were almost equally sensitive to an organophosphate, profenofos. The B biotype was more resistant to a pyrethroid, permethrin, suggesting the existence of a biotype of fi. tabaci, with a history of exposure to pesticides with a pyrethroid-based chemistry. In mating studies involving reciprocal crosses between the A and the B biotypes, very few F, female progeny were produced, indicating either minimal or non-existent reproductive compatibility between these haplo-diploid B. tabaci populations, presently considered to be the same species. Evidence is presented for the recent and widespread introduction, and subsequent spread of the B biotype throughout the US, the Caribbean Basin, and other proximal locations.
An automatic insect release system (AIRS) has been developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in collaboration with Firma Dieringer of Austria and Ciba-Pilatus (now Zimex Aviation) of Switzerland for the aerial distribution of natural enemies of two cassava pests—cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) and cassava green mite (Mononychellus tanajoa). The AIRS, installed in a twin turbo-prop aircraft, has undergone a series of tests to evaluate suitable packaging substrates, pre- and post-release mortality, biological performance and ground distribution of natural enemies.
Preliminary results show 25% of the mealybug parasitoid, Epidinocarsis lopezi died from packaging to release, maximum 25% died during the release and minimum 50% survived. The mortality of predatory mites released in small packages was negligible. Further work on post-release survival and dispersal is needed.
A descriptive study of the psychiatric findings in 50 insulin—dependent diabetics is presented. Among the symptoms found were a marked reduction in energy level, increased fatigue and irritability, depression, and delayed psychosexual maturation. Diabetes mellitus is commonly considered to be a disease that, if properly controlled, allows the patient to lead a relatively normal life. We found, however, that these symptoms often made the patients' lives uncomfortable, reduced their functional capacity, disrupted their family life, and disturbed the adolescence of those who were affected at an early age.
Psychometric examination of a group of diabetic patients and a group of age-matched controls failed to provide evidence of impaired intellectual functioning in the diabetic group. The cognitive status of the diabetics was not related to the duration of the illness, the age at diagnosis, or clinical ratings of peripheral or autonomic neuropathy.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.