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Originating mostly in the world of oncology, palliative care has matured into a wide-ranging field aimed at improving the quality of life of all patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illnesses. Palliative care aims at preventing and relieving physical, social, psychological, and spiritual suffering. Components of palliative care vary based on the setting, but generally include (1) relationship and rapport building with patients and family members; (2) addressing and managing physical, social, psychological, and spiritual symptoms; (3) eliciting patient and family values; (4) interpreting and communicating information about the patient’s illness, prognosis, and treatment options and ensuring understanding; (5) helping patients and families to cope with life-altering circumstances and preventing or managing grief; (6) identifying and resolving conflicts, either between family members, between different medical team members, or between family and medical teams; (7) assisting with goal setting and advance care planning; and (8) hospice referral and discharge planning.1,2 Palliative care can be provided to patients and their families in any setting and at any time during the course of an illness, and may be offered alongside curative treatment.
The Foothills Erratics Train consists of large quartzite blocks of Rocky Mountains origin deposited on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountain Foothills in Alberta between ~53.5°N and 49°N. The blocks were deposited in their present locations when the western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) detached from the local ice masses of the Rocky Mountains, which initiated the opening of the southern end of the ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and the LIS. We use 10Be exposure dating to constrain the beginning of this decoupling. Based on a group of 12 samples well-clustered in time, we date the detachment of the western LIS margin from the Rocky Mountain front to ~14.9 ± 0.9 ka. This is ~1000 years later than previously assumed, but a lack of a latitudinal trend in the ages over a distance of ~500 km is consistent with the rapid opening of a long wedge of unglaciated terrain portrayed in existing ice-retreat reconstructions. A later separation of the western LIS margin from the mountain front implies higher ice margin–retreat rates in order to meet the Younger Dryas ice margin position near the boundary of the Canadian Shield ~2000 years later.
The government publishes 3 different public report surgical site infection (SSI) metrics, all called standardized infection ratios (SIRs), that impact perceived hospital quality. We conducted a non-random cross-sectional observational pilot study of 20 California hospitals that voluntarily submitted colon surgery and SSI data. Discordant SIR values, leading to contradictory conclusions, occurred in 35% of these hospitals.
At the centre of the Parkes 64—m radio telescope a region of diameter 17 m has recently been resurfaced to improve its efficiency at high frequencies. The first measurements using this section have been made at 22 GHz, in observations of both continuum sources and water tfapour masers. For these observations the receiver front-end used a mixer cooled in liquid nitrogen, followed by a 5 GHz cryogenic parametric amplifier as a second stage. The option of switching against an offset horn was available and the total system
noise temperature was ∽ 750 K.
Observations of galactic HII regions in the longitude range 280° to 300° have recently been made at the OH-line frequencies 1612.231, 1665.402 and 1667.358 MHz using the Parkes radio telescope. Strong emission was observed at 1612 and 1665 MHz from a source near the regions of Hα emission RCW 48 and RCW 49 (Rodgers, Campbell and Whiteoak).
Most of the known 1.35 cm water vapour masers have been detected in the direction of known 18 cm OH masers. However, a small number have been found in the direction of HII regions where no OH maser is known. Several new examples of H20 masers with no known OH counterparts have recently been published by Kaufmann et d. (1976), who suggest that these constitute a new class of H20 maser.
In 1966 McGee, Gardner and Robinson carried out an exploratory search at 1665 MHz for OH in 26 thermal sources in the southern Milky Way and reported emission in 12 sources. Subsequent measurements by Robinson, Goss and Manchester confirmed emission from six of these and detected four additional OH emitters.
Time variations in both the NGC 6334 and Orion OH sources have been reported by the Berkeley group. The variations in NGC 6334 have been partially confirmed by the group at the Lincoln Laboratory, who show that the variations are confined to the southern source, NGC 6334B. These latter authors find variable components at —6.6 and —7.9 km/s at 1665 MHz and at —8.9 km/s at 1667 MHz. Both features at 1665 MHz appear to vary, both up and down, with time; during 1966 October the characteristic rise time was nine days or less. The Berkeley results show that the linear polarization was constant during a two-week period in 1965 October. The Lincoln Laboratory results from 1966 October to 1967 June show that both the degree and sense of circular polarization remain constant as the three features vary with time.
An extensive survey of HI absorption in the spectra of discrete radio sources has been in progress for the past three years at the Parkes radio observatory. One part of the survey comprising sources along the galactic plane north of declination —50° has recently been completed. In this communication we discuss some conclusions concerning the distances of 10 sources drawn from a preliminary analysis of the data.
During 1968 we have found at Parkes several types of emission in the lines of the 18 cm quadruplet of the ground-state OH molecule. This note describes a strong source of 1612 MHz emission near galactic longitude 331°.
OH emission was originally detected in the vicinity of HII regions, and a search of a large number of HII regions showed that about a third had associated OH emission. This type of emission is usually strongest at 1665 MHz, and is also seen at 1667 MHz and weakly on one of the satellite lines.
Understanding crystal orientation at the ferroelectric domain level, using a non destructive technique, is crucial for the design and characterization of nano-scale devices. In this study, piezoresponse force spectroscopy (PFS) is used to identify ferroelectric domain orientation. The impact of crystal orientation on the switching field of ferroelectric BaTiO3 is also investigated at the domain level. The preferential domain orientations for BaTiO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in this study are ,  and . They have been mapped onto PFS spectra to show three corresponding switching fields of 460, 330 and 120 kV/cm respectively. In addition, the electric field at which the enhanced piezoresponse occurs was found to vary, due to a phase change. The polarization reversal occurs via a 2-step process (rotation and switching) for  and  orientations. The piezoresponse enhancement is absent for the  (pure switching) domains. The results demonstrate that an electric field induced phase change causes the  and  domains to reverse polarization at a lower field than the  domain.
Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the VLA† at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ∼1 × 104 yr estimated for the outermost radio ring appears to be comparable to the inferred age of the Sgr A East SNR.
Deep imaging of the Sgr A complex at 6 cm wavelength with the B and C configurations of the Karl G. Jansky VLA† has revealed a new population of faint radio filaments. Like their brighter counterparts that have been observed throughout the Galactic center on larger scales, these filaments can extend up to ∼10 parsecs, and in most cases are strikingly uniform in brightness and curvature. Comparison with a survey of Paschen-α emission reveals that some of the filaments are emitting thermally, but most of these structures are nonthermal: local magnetic flux tubes illuminated by synchrotron emission. The new image reveals considerable filamentary substructure in previously known nonthermal filaments (NTFs). Unlike NTFs previously observed on larger scales, which tend to show a predominant orientation roughly perpendicular to the Galactic plane, the NTFs in the vicinity of the Sgr A complex are relatively randomly oriented. Two well-known radio sources to the south of Sgr A – sources E and F – consist of numerous quasi-parallel filaments that now appear to be particularly bright portions of a much larger, strongly curved, continuous, nonthermal radio structure that we refer to as the “Southern Curl”. It is therefore unlikely that sources E and F are Hii regions or pulsar wind nebulae. The Southern Curl has a smaller counterpart on the opposite side of the Galactic center – the Northern Curl – that, except for its smaller scale and smaller distance from the center, is roughly point-reflection symmetric with respect to the Southern Curl. The curl features indicate that some field lines are strongly distorted, presumably by mass flows. The point symmetry about the center then suggests that the flows originate near the center and are somewhat collimated.
We have carried out a study of the neutral hydrogen in the direction of the X-ray source 1E 161348–5055, a compact central object (CCO) located in the interior of the supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 103. The Hi 21 cm line observations were carried out using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, complemented with single dish data from the Parkes radio telescope to recover information at all spatial scales. We derive a distance to RCW 103 of 3.1 kpc, in agreement with previous distance measurements. We have also detected a small hole in the Hi emission which is positionally and kinematically coincident with the location of the CCO which confirms the association between the SNR and the CCO. This is the third case of a depression in Hi emission seemingly associated with CCOs in SNRs. The characteristic parameters of the holes such as their size, eccentricity and evacuated mass are similar in all three cases. We estimate the absorbing HI column density towards 1E 161348–5055 to be ∼6 × 1021 cm–2, a value compatible with a blackbody solution for the CCO X-ray emission. However, the implied temperature and luminosity are very high compared to most neutron stars. Moreover, the strong long-term variability in X-rays favours the hypothesis that 1E 161348–5055 is an accreting binary source rather than an isolated, cooling neutron star. An analysis of the continuum image obtained at 1.4 GHz from these observations shows no trace of a pulsar wind nebula around 1E 161348–5055, in spite of it being a young object.
Our analysis of a VLBA 12-hour synthesis observations of the OH masers in W49N has provided detailed high angular-resolution images of the maser sources, at 1612, 1665 and 1667 MHz. The images, of several dozens of spots, reveal anisotropic scatter broadening; with typical sizes of a few tens of milli-arc-seconds and axial ratios between 1.5 to 3. The image position angles oriented perpendicular to the galactic plane are interpreted in terms of elongation of electron-density irregularities parallel to the galactic plane, due to a similarly aligned local magnetic field. However, we find the apparent angular sizes on the average a factor of 2.5 less than those reported by Desai et al., indicating significantly less scattering than inferred earlier. The average position angle of the scattered broadened images is also seen to deviate significantly (by about 10 degrees) from that implied by the magnetic field in the Galactic plane. More intriguingly, for a few Zeeman pairs in our set, we find significant differences in the scatter broadened images for the two hands of polarization, even when apparent velocity separation is less than 0.1 km/s. Here we present the details of our observations and analysis, and discuss the interesting implications of our results for the intervening anisotropic magneto-ionic medium, as well as a comparison with the expectations based on earlier work.
We have investigated, using density functional simulations, the energetics and the electronic properties of oxides of selected transition metals, TMs, adsorbed onto a dia-mond (001) surface. We find that stoichiometric oxides of TMs, particularly Ti and Zn,influence the electron affinity of diamond strongly. The electron affinities of stoichiomet-ric oxides of Ti and Zn are calculated to be around −3 eV, significantly higher than 1.9 eV of commonly used H–termination. The reactions of TMs with an oxygenated diamond are found to be highly exothermic. Based upon the energetics and the electronic properties, we propose that in the regime of ultra thin films, oxides of TMs are promising options for surface coating of diamond–based electron emitters, as these coatings are compatible with semiconductor device fabrication processes, while having the benefit of inducing a large negative electron affinity.
Understanding the timing of mountain glacier and paleolake expansion and retraction in the Great Basin region of the western United States has important implications for regional-scale climate change during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The relative timing of mountain glacier maxima and the well-studied Lake Bonneville highstand has been unclear, however, owing to poor chronological limits on glacial deposits. Here, this problem is addressed by applying terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to a classic set of terminal moraines in Little Cottonwood and American Fork Canyons in the western Wasatch Mountains. The exposure ages indicate that the main phase of deglaciation began at 15.7 ± 1.3 ka in both canyons. This update to the glacial chronology of the western Wasatch Mountains can be reconciled with previous stratigraphic observations of glacial and paleolake deposits in this area, and indicates that the start of deglaciation occurred during or at the end of the Lake Bonneville hydrologic maximum. The glacial chronology reported here is consistent with the growing body of data suggesting that mountain glaciers in the western U.S. began retreating as many as 4 ka after the start of northern hemisphere deglaciation (at ca. 19 ka).
Division X provides a common theme for astronomers using radio techniques to study a vast range of phenomena in the Universe, from exploring the Earth's ionosphere or making radar measurements in the Solar System, via mapping the distribution of gas and molecules in our own Galaxy and in other galaxies, to study the vast explosive processes in radio galaxies and QSOs and the faint afterglow of the Big Bang itself.
The second Women in Astronomy Lunchtime Meeting was held on Monday 21 August 2006, with more than 250 participants. The meeting was hosted by the EC Working Group for Women in Astronomy, established at the 2003 IAU General Assembly, and was attended by the current President, the Presidents-Elect for this and the next General Assembly, the General Secretary and Vice-Presidents, many senior astronomers, as well as students and young astronomers. It was a particular pleasure to welcome and congratulate the incoming President, Dr Catherine Cesarsky, the first woman to hold the position.