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The clinical observation suggests a relation between alcoholism and dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal hormone axis. Chronic alcohol abuse leads to hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction. Testosterone and the genetics of the androgen receptor [AR] are related to impulsivity as well as appetite/hunger, both associated with addiction.
This study investigated whether the length of a CAG trinucleotide repeat within the coding region of the AR is associated with alcoholism in general and whether it is linked to craving during withdrawal. Moreover, we concentrated on finding possible mediators of the observed effects.
We included 112 male inpatients who were admitted for detoxification treatment and who were compared to 50 age-matched controls. To measure the extent of craving we used the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) on the day of hospital admission. For laboratory analysis we used whole blood (genetics) and serum (protein quantification).
The group of patients (21.6 ± 3.7 repeats) did not differ significantly from the control group (21.3 ± 3.3 repeats, p = 0.632) in terms of the number of CAG repeats. We found a significant negative correlation for the AR repeat length regarding OCDS-to (R2 = 0.053, p = 0.016) and OCDS-obs (R2 = 0.058, p = 0.011). Carrying out a path analysis of the mediating effect of leptin on the association between the number of CAG repeats of the AR and alcohol craving we found that direct effects (r = −0.144) accounted for 60% and indirect leptin-mediated effects (r = −0.096) for 40% of the total effect.
Today, the impact of the sexual hormone axis seems to be underestimated in alcoholism.
The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breast-feeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes globally. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. The present study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the global, regional and country levels.
Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008–2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data.
Eighty countries categorized by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with the largest infant/child populations.
MF categories included total (for ages 0–36 months), infant (0–6 months), follow-up (7–12 months), toddler (13–36 months) and special (0–6 months).
In 2008–2013 world total MF sales grew by 40·8 % from 5·5 to 7·8 kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10·8 kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries.
A global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) transition towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for global child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. The observed changes have not been captured by existing IYCF monitoring systems.
A lower molar of Castor fiber from the sandpit of Langenboom (the Netherlands) represents, so far, the oldest occurrence of a beaver in the North Sea Basin. Its presence in the marine sand deposit of the Langenboom Formation indicates that Castor fiber inhabited areas in or near the river systems of Rhine and Meuse in the Early Pliocene.
To articulate a healthy and sustainable (H&S) diet; outline key health and environmental sustainability principles that can be applied in the selection of foods for inclusion in such a diet; and describe a methodology with which to assess the availability and affordability of a H&S food basket.
We synthesized publically available evidence on the environmental impact of different foods from academic, government, industry and non-government sources and constructed a hypothetical H&S equivalent of the typical Australian diet. Based on this, we constructed a weekly H&S food basket for a household of two adults and two children.
The H&S diet is based on three overarching principles: (i) any food that is consumed above a person's energy requirement represents an avoidable environmental burden in the form of greenhouse gas emissions, use of natural resources and pressure on biodiversity; (ii) reducing the consumption of discretionary food choices, which are energy-dense and highly processed and packaged, reduces both the risk of dietary imbalances and the use of environmental resources; and (iii) a diet comprising less animal- and more plant-derived foods delivers both health and ecological benefits.
We have focused on the articulation of a H&S diet not to facilitate ‘policy drift’ to focus on individual dietary choice, but rather to provide evidence to extend dietary guideline recommendations so as to integrate environmental considerations within the scope of food and health policy advice in Australia and elsewhere.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
This review traces the development of X-ray mapping from its beginning
50 years ago through current analysis procedures that can reveal otherwise
obscure elemental distributions and associations. X-ray mapping or
compositional imaging of elemental distributions is one of the major
capabilities of electron beam microanalysis because it frees the operator
from the necessity of making decisions about which image features contain
elements of interest. Elements in unexpected locations, or in unexpected
association with other elements, may be found easily without operator bias
as to where to locate the electron probe for data collection. X-ray
mapping in the SEM or EPMA may be applied to bulk specimens at a spatial
resolution of about 1 μm. X-ray mapping of thin specimens in the TEM
or STEM may be accomplished at a spatial resolution ranging from 2 to 100
nm, depending on specimen thickness and the microscope. Although mapping
has traditionally been considered a qualitative technique, recent
developments demonstrate the quantitative capabilities of X-ray mapping
techniques. Moreover, the long-desired ability to collect and store an
entire spectrum at every pixel is now a reality, and methods for mining
these data are rapidly being developed.
ASTM International publishes many standards specifically about microscopes and using microscopy. The value of these standards falls into three distinct categories. First, they can be a quick tutorial on how to perform some operation. E 1508, "Standard Guide to Quantitative Analysis by EDS" is only eight pages long and falls into this category. Second, they can be used to standardize a test and reporting method. The methods described in E 1382, "Standard Test Methods for Determining Grain Size by Semiautomatic and Automatic Image Analysis" are examples of procedures that have been agreed upon for many years.
After almost 50 years in existence in a variety of different forms, the EU finally has an express proposal on the table dealing with the potential withdrawal of a Member State. Article 59 of the draft Constitution states that any Member State may now ‘decide to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements’.1 The Member State would have to formally notify the European Council of this decision. The Council and the Member State would then enter into negotiations on a mutually agreeable basis for withdrawal, including a framework for the future relationship between the EU and the Member State. The results of this negotiation would require approval by a qualified majority of the Council after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.2 In any event, withdrawal would occur not later than two years following the notification unless extended by agreement between the Member State and the European Council.3