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This prospective, epidemiological British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit study into ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery aimed to determine the minimum incidence, presenting features and management throughout the UK.
Cases of ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery, between February 2016 and February 2018, were identified through the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit reporting card system. Reporting ophthalmic consultants were sent an initial questionnaire, followed by a second questionnaire at six months.
Twenty-six cases of ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery were reported. The majority (16 cases (62 per cent)) had limitations of ocular motility at presentation. The most common final diagnosis was rectus muscle (33 per cent) and nasolacrimal duct trauma (27 per cent). Using national data, this study reports a minimum incidence of ophthalmic complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the UK of 0.2 per cent over two years.
In terms of ophthalmic complications, functional endoscopic sinus surgery is shown to be safe. Ophthalmic complications are rare, but when they do occur, they commonly result in rectus muscle trauma, often requiring surgical intervention.
The extent to which exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse increases the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood is currently unclear.
To examine the relationship between childhood sexual and physical abuse and psychotic experiences in adulthood taking into account potential confounding and time-dynamic covariate factors.
Data were from a cohort of 1265 participants studied from birth to 35 years. At ages 18 and 21, cohort members were questioned about childhood sexual and physical abuse. At ages 30 and 35, they were questioned about psychotic experiences (symptoms of abnormal thought and perception). Generalised estimating equation models investigated covariation of the association between abuse exposure and psychotic experiences including potential confounding factors in childhood (socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse family functioning) and time-dynamic covariate factors (mental health, substance use and life stress).
Data were available for 962 participants; 6.3% had been exposed to severe sexual abuse and 6.4% to severe physical abuse in childhood. After adjustment for confounding and time-dynamic covariate factors, those exposed to severe sexual abuse had rates of abnormal thought and abnormal perception symptoms that were 2.25 and 4.08 times higher, respectively than the ‘no exposure’ group. There were no significant associations between exposure to severe physical abuse and psychotic experiences.
Findings indicate that exposure to severe childhood sexual (but not physical) abuse is independently associated with an increased risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood (particularly symptoms of abnormal perception) and this association could not be fully accounted for by confounding or time-dynamic covariate factors.