Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Electron microprobe trace element analysis is a significant challenge. Due to the low net intensity of peak measurements, the accuracy and precision of such analyses relies critically on background measurements, and on the accuracy of any pertinent peak interference corrections. A linear regression between two points selected at appropriate background positions is a classical approach for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). However, this approach neglects the accurate assessment of background curvature (exponential or polynomial), and the presence of background interferences, a hole in the background, or an absorption edge can dramatically affect the results if underestimated or ignored. The acquisition of a quantitative wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) scan over the spectral region of interest remains a reasonable option to determine the background intensity and curvature from a fitted regression of background portions of the scan, but this technique can be time consuming and retains an element of subjectivity, as the analyst has to select areas in the scan which appear to represent background. This paper presents a new multi-point background (MPB) method whereby the background intensity is determined from up to 24 background measurements from wavelength positions on either side of analytical lines. This method improves the accuracy and precision of trace element analysis in a complex matrix through careful regression of the background shape, and can be used to characterize the background over a large spectral region covering several elements to be analyzed. The overall efficiency improves as systematic WDS scanning is not required to assess background interferences. The method is less subjective compared to methods that rely on WDS scanning, including selection of two interpolation points based on WDS scans, because “true” backgrounds are selected through an exclusion method of possible erroneous backgrounds. The first validation of the MPB method involves blank testing to ensure the method can accurately measure the absence of an element. The second validation involves the analysis of U-Th-Pb in several monazite reference materials of known isotopic age. The impetus for the MPB method came from efforts to refine EPMA monazite U-Th-Pb dating, where it was recognized that background errors resulting from interference or strong background curvature could result in errors of several tens of millions of years on the calculated date. Results obtained on monazite reference materials using two different microprobes, a Cameca SX-100 Ultrachron and a JEOL JXA-8230, yield excellent agreement with ages obtained by isotopic methods (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry [TIMS], Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe [SHRIMP], or Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry [SIMS]). Finally, the MPB method can be used to model the background over a large spectrometer range to improve the accuracy of background measurement of minor and trace elements acquired on a same spectrometer, a method called the shared background measurement. This latter significantly improves the accuracy of minor and trace element analysis in complex matrices, as demonstrated by the analysis of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in REE-silicates and phosphates and of trace elements in scheelite.
Secondary fluorescence (SF), typically a minor error in routine electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), may not be negligible when performing high precision trace element analyses in multiphase samples. Other factors, notably wavelength dispersive spectrometer defocusing, may introduce analytical artifacts. To explore these issues, we measured EPMA transects across two material couples chosen for their high fluorescence yield. We measured transects away from the fluorescent phase, and at various orientations with respect to the spectrometer focal line. Compared to calculations using both the Monte Carlo simulation code PENEPMA and the semi-analytical model FANAL, both codes estimate the magnitude of SF, but accurate correction requires knowledge of the position of the spectrometer with respect to the couple interface. Positioned over the fluorescent phase or otherwise results in a factor of 1.2–1.8 of apparent change in SF yield. SF and spectrometer defocusing may introduce systematic errors into trace element analyses, both may be adequately accounted for by modeling. Of the two, however, SF is the dominant error, resulting in 0.1 wt% Zn apparently present in Al at 100 μm away from the Zn boundary in an Al/Zn couple. Of this, around 200 ppm Zn can be attributed to spectrometer defocusing.
Precision technologies and data have had relatively modest impacts in grass-based livestock ruminant production systems compared with other agricultural sectors such as arable. Precision technologies promise increased efficiency, reduced environmental impact, improved animal health, welfare and product quality. The benefits of precision technologies have, however, been relatively slow to be realised on pasture based farms. Though there is significant overlap with indoor systems, implementing technology in grass-based dairying brings unique opportunities and challenges. The large areas animals roam and graze in pasture based systems and the associated connectivity challenges may, in part at least, explain the comparatively lower adoption of such technologies in pasture based systems. With the exception of sensor and Bluetooth-enabled plate metres, there are thus few technologies designed specifically to increase pasture utilisation. Terrestrial and satellite-based spectral analysis of pasture biomass and quality is still in the development phase. One of the key drivers of efficiency in pasture based systems has thus only been marginally impacted by precision technologies. In contrast, technological development in the area of fertility and heat detection has been significant and offers significant potential value to dairy farmers, including those in pasture based systems. A past review of sensors in health management for dairy farms concluded that although the collection of accurate data was generally achieved, the processing, integration and presentation of the resulting information and decision-support applications were inadequate. These technologies’ value to farming systems is thus unclear. As a result, it is not certain that farm management is being sufficiently improved to justify widespread adoption of precision technologies currently. We argue for a user need-driven development of technologies and for a focus on how outputs arising from precision technologies and associated decision support applications are delivered to users to maximise their value. Further cost/benefit analysis is required to determine the efficacy of investing in specific precision technologies, potentially taking account of several yet to ascertained farm specific variables.
Our current global food system – from food production to consumption, including manufacture, packaging, transport, retail and associated businesses – is responsible for extensive negative social and environmental impacts which threaten the long-term well-being of society. This has led to increasing calls from science–policy organizations for major reform and transformation of the global food system. However, our knowledge regarding food system transformations is fragmented and this is hindering the development of co-ordinated solutions. Here, we collate recent research across several academic disciplines and sectors in order to better understand the mechanisms that ‘lock-in’ food systems in unsustainable states.
The objective was to evaluate the association between changes in daily rumination time (dRT) and early stages of disease during early lactation and to assess the performance of two proposed disease detection indices. This cohort study included 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit. Cows were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers providing rumination time. The occurrence of health disorders (mastitis, metritis, clinical hypocalcemia, depression/dehydration/fever (DDF), digestive conditions, lameness and clinical ketosis) was assessed until 60 days in milk. Two indices were developed to explore the association between dRT and disease: (i) Cow index (CIx), based on changes in dRT in the affected cow during the days before the diagnosis of health disorders; (ii) Mates index (MIx), index based on deviations in dRT relative to previous days and healthy pen mate cohorts. Subsequently, an alert model was proposed for each index (ACIx and AMIx) considering the reference alert cut-off values as the differences between average index values in healthy and sick cows for each specific disease. The sensitivity (SE) of ACIx detecting disease ranged from 42% (digestive conditions and DDF) to 80% (clinical hypocalcemia) with 84% specificity (SP). The SE of AMIx ranged from 46% (digestive conditions and DDF) to 100% (clinical hypocalcemia) with 85% SP. Consistent reductions in rumination activity, both within cow and relative to healthy mate cohorts, were observed for each health disorder at the day of diagnosis. However, the ability of the proposed algorithms for detecting each specific disease was variable.
The Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) echinoderm fauna of Bang Mueang Song Tho, western Thailand (Pha Phum group, Bo Ngam Formation(?)), includes rare thecae, and common thecal ossicles and columnals, and is dominated by ‘cystoids’. Cheirocrinid glyptocystitoids include Cheirocystella sp. (= Echinoencrinites sp. aff. E. senckenbergii (von Meyer) sensu Wolfart), ‘Cheirocrinus’ sp. and Cheirocrinidae incertae sedis. Hemicosmitoids are composed of Paracaryocrinites kochi (Wolfart), ‘Paracaryocrinites’ sp. and Polycosmites sp. cf. P. kaekeli Wolfart. The aristocystitid Sinocystis sp. cf. S. loczyi Reed is the only diploporite. Columnals of Bystrowicrinus (col.) sp. are probably crinoidal. The fullest determination of the echinoderm biodiversity of this site has been obtained using all specimens from single ossicles to articulated thecae. The limited taphonomic data suggests that the echinoderm assemblage is parauthochthonous. Other echinoderms described from coeval deposits in this region include Stichocystis thailandica Wolfart; Heliocrinites sp. aff. H. qualus Bather (probably a Lophotocystis Paul); Gomphocystites? sp. indet. (= trilobite?); Codiacystis sp. aff. C. bohemicus (Barrande) (= bryozoan?); Aristocystis [sic] sp. A of Paul; and [non] Incertae sedis sp. C of Paul (may not be an echinoderm).
An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18–24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G. Two distinct clusters of genotype G were identified, one circulating before the outbreak and the other thereafter, suggesting the virus that caused this outbreak was genetically different from the previously circulating virus. Whilst the poor vaccine effectiveness we found may be due to waning immunity over time, a contributing factor may be that the current mumps vaccine is less effective against some genotypes. Although the general benefits of the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine should continue to be promoted, there may be value in reassessing the UK vaccination schedule and the current mumps component of the MMR vaccine.
Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research.
Existing literature in prodromal and dementia states was reviewed, focusing on epidemiology, and neurobiology. Search terms included: “mild cognitive impairment,” “dementia,” “prodromal dementia,” “preclinical dementia,” “Alzheimer's,” “depression,” “dysphoria,” “mania,” “euphoria,” “bipolar disorder,” and “irritability.”
Affective and emotional dysregulation are common in preclinical and prodromal dementia syndromes, often being harbingers of neurodegenerative change and progressive cognitive decline. Nosological constraints in distinguishing between pre-existing psychiatric symptomatology and later life acquired NPS limit historical data utility, but emerging research emphasizes the importance of addressing time frames between symptom onset and cognitive decline, and age of symptom onset.
Affective symptoms are of prognostic utility, but interventions to prevent dementia syndromes are limited. Trials need to assess interventions targeting known dementia pathology, toward novel pathology, as well as using psychiatric medications. Research focusing explicitly on later life onset symptomatology will improve our understanding of the neurobiology of NPS and neurodegeneration, enrich the study sample, and inform observational and clinical trial design for prevention and treatment strategies.
We report the discovery in the Greenland ice sheet of a discrete layer of free nanodiamonds (NDs) in very high abundances, implying most likely either an unprecedented influx of extraterrestrial (ET) material or a cosmic impact event that occurred after the last glacial episode. From that layer, we extracted n-diamonds and hexagonal diamonds (lonsdaleite), an accepted ET impact indicator, at abundances of up to about 5×106 times background levels in adjacent younger and older ice. The NDs in the concentrated layer are rounded, suggesting they most likely formed during a cosmic impact through some process similar to carbon-vapor deposition or high-explosive detonation. This morphology has not been reported previously in cosmic material, but has been observed in terrestrial impact material. This is the first highly enriched, discrete layer of NDs observed in glacial ice anywhere, and its presence indicates that ice caps are important archives of ET events of varying magnitudes. Using a preliminary ice chronology based on oxygen isotopes and dust stratigraphy, the ND-rich layer appears to be coeval with ND abundance peaks reported at numerous North American sites in a sedimentary layer, the Younger Dryas boundary layer (YDB), dating to 12.9 ± 0.1 ka. However, more investigation is needed to confirm this association.
Llandovery (Lower Silurian) echinoderm faunas are uncommon, an observation which has important implications for our understanding of the patterns of evolution and extinction over the Ordovician/Silurian boundary interval. For example, only two crinoid faunas of Rhuddanian or Rhuddanian+Aeronian age have so far been described, both from North America (Cataract Group, Ontario; Brassfield Formation, Ohio). A third echinoderm fauna of Rhuddanian age is now recognized from the Gasworks Mudstones (=upper Haverford Mudstone Formation) and, less certainly, the Gasworks Sandstone Formation of Haverfordwest, Dyfed, southwest Wales. Recent fieldwork has failed to relocate the precise horizon that produced this fauna and the taxa discussed herein are all based on specimens in the Turnbull Collection of the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. There is no published analysis of this fauna, but Ramsbottom, in his Ph.D. thesis, identified Pisocrinus sp., Macrostylocrinus sp. and Dimerocrinites sp. from this horizon.
A disarticulated thecal plate has been identified as the rhombiferan Homocystites? sp., confirming that the cheirocrinids survived the end Ordovician extinction. This is only the second British Llandovery cystoid. All other specimens are crinoids. Crowns of calceocrinid disparids are assigned to two species of Calceocrinus (=“Pisocrinus sp.” of Ramsbottom). A dendrocrinid cladid is interpreted as a smmoth-cupped Dendrocrinus? A unique internal mould is a monobathrid, possibly Macrostylocrinus. Distinctive petaloid columnals of Floricolumnus (col.) sp. cf. F. girvanensis Donovan and Clark, possibly derived from a rhodocrinitid diplobathrid, are congeneric with ossicles from the Newlands Formation of southwest Scotland (latest Rhuddanian-earliest Aeronian) and the Brassfield Formation of Ohio (‘Bead Bed’). A new species of rhodocrinitid diplobathrid (=“Dimerocrinites sp.” of Ramsbottom) has low infrabasals just apparent in lateral view; a moderately bowl-shaped dorsal cup; prominent ray ridges; 2, 3 or 5 plates, respectively, in the first three tiers of interprimibrachials; and uniserial arms that branch isotomously once and heterotomously thereafter. Two further crinoid species are indeterminate. At the familial level, this fauna shows strong similarities with coeval, but more diverse, crinoid assemblages from North America.
Many parts of the medical image are never fixated when a radiologist searches for cancer nodules. Experts are able to use peripheral vision very efficiently. The size of the functional visual field appears to increase according to the level of expertise. However, searching a medical image diverges, in a puzzling way, from the typical search for a target feature in the laboratory.
Several outbreaks of hepatitis A in men who have sex with men (MSM) were reported in the 1980s and 1990s in Australia and other countries. An effective hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine has been available in Australia since 1994 and is recommended for high-risk groups including MSM. No outbreaks of hepatitis A in Australian MSM have been reported since 1996. In this study, we aimed to estimate HAV transmissibility in MSM populations in order to inform targets for vaccine coverage in such populations. We used mathematical models of HAV transmission in a MSM population to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) and the probability of an HAV epidemic occurring as a function of the immune proportion. We estimated a plausible range for R0 of 1·71–3·67 for HAV in MSM and that sustained epidemics cannot occur once the proportion immune to HAV is greater than ~70%. To our knowledge this is the first estimate of R0 and the critical population immunity threshold for HAV transmission in MSM. As HAV is no longer endemic in Australia or in most other developed countries, vaccination is the only means of maintaining population immunity >70%. Our findings provide impetus to promote HAV vaccination in high-risk groups such as MSM.