To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To disrupt cycles of health inequity, traceable to dietary inequities in the earliest stages of life, public health interventions should target improving nutritional wellbeing in preconception/pregnancy environments. This requires a deep engagement with pregnant/postpartum people (PPP) and their communities (including their health and social care providers, HSCP). We sought to understand the factors that influence diet during pregnancy from the perspectives of PPP and HSCP, and to outline intervention priorities.
We carried out thematic network analyses of transcripts from ten focus group discussions (FGD) and one stakeholder engagement meeting with PPP and HSCP in a Canadian city. Identified themes were developed into conceptual maps, highlighting local priorities for pregnancy nutrition and intervention development.
FGD and the stakeholder meeting were run in predominantly lower socioeconomic position (SEP) neighbourhoods in the sociodemographically diverse city of Hamilton, Canada.
All local, comprising twenty-two lower SEP PPP and forty-three HSCP.
Salient themes were resilience, resources, relationships and the embodied experience of pregnancy. Both PPP and HSCP underscored that socioeconomic-political forces operating at multiple levels largely determined the availability of individual and relational resources constraining diet during pregnancy. Intervention proposals focused on cultivating individual and community resilience to improve early-life nutritional environments. Participants called for better-integrated services, greater income supports and strengthened support programmes.
Hamilton stakeholders foregrounded social determinants of inequity as main factors influencing pregnancy diet. They further indicated a need to develop interventions that build resilience and redistribute resources at multiple levels, from the household to the state.
Prescribing metrics, cost, and surrogate markers are often used to describe the value of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs. However, process measures are only indirectly related to clinical outcomes and may not represent the total effect of an intervention. We determined the global impact of a multifaceted AMS initiative for hospitalized adults with common infections.
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Hospitalized adults with urinary, skin, and respiratory tract infections discharged from family medicine and internal medicine wards before (January 2017–June 2017) and after (January 2018–June 2018) an AMS initiative on a family medicine ward were included. A series of AMS-focused initiatives comprised the development and dissemination of: handheld prescribing tools, AMS positive feedback cases, and academic modules. We compared the effect on an ordinal end point consisting of clinical resolution, adverse drug events, and antimicrobial optimization between the preintervention and postintervention periods.
In total, 256 subjects were included before and after an AMS intervention. Excessive durations of therapy were reduced from 40.3% to 22% (P < .001). Patients without an optimized antimicrobial course were more likely to experience clinical failure (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.17–4.72). The likelihood of a better global outcome was greater in the family medicine intervention arm (62.0%, 95% CI, 59.6–67.1) than in the preintervention family medicine arm.
Collaborative, targeted feedback with prescribing metrics, AMS cases, and education improved global outcomes for hospitalized adults on a family medicine ward.
Archaeologists have struggled to combine remotely sensed datasets with preexisting information for landscape-level analyses. In the American Southeast, for example, analyses of lidar data using automated feature extraction algorithms have led to the identification of over 40 potential new pre-European-contact Native American shell ring deposits in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Such datasets are vital for understanding settlement distributions, yet a comprehensive assessment requires remotely sensed and previously surveyed archaeological data. Here, we use legacy data and airborne lidar-derived information to conduct a series of point pattern analyses using spatial models that we designed to assess the factors that best explain the location of shell rings. The results reveal that ring deposit locations are highly clustered and best explained through a combination of environmental conditions such as distance to water and elevation as well as social factors.
In this chapter, important issues which may be encountered when prescribing medications to older adults will be discussed. It must be remembered that medication is only one of several valuable approaches in treating psychiatric disorders in the elderly and it is often necessary to integrate expertise in drug prescribing with psychotherapy and social interventions, although discussion of these is beyond the scope of this review. The first part of the chapter reviews population demographics in relation to older age psychiatry and the fact that the evidence base for using many psychiatric medications in older people is more meagre than in younger adults. This is followed by a review of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic changes seen in older adults, which can impact on prescribing.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the antimicrobial stewardship module in our electronic medical record was reconfigured for the management of COVID-19 patients. This change allowed our subspecialist providers to review charts quickly to optimize potential therapy and management during the patient surge.
In their excellent review of the environmental and genetic underpinnings of personality disorders, Turner, Prud’homme, and Legg (this volume) provide compelling evidence that early family adversity (e.g., maltreatment, parenting difficulties, parental separation) is an environmental risk factor for offspring personality difficulties. However, little is known about how and why these family characteristics increase the risk for various personality disorders. Guided by evolutionary theory, the goal of this commentary is to illustrate how the synthesis of these two areas of inquiry may advance an understanding of the origins and course of typical and atypical personality characteristics in mutually informative ways. First, building on the coverage of attachment in the primary chapter, the authors address how other behavioral systems that are designed to defend against social threat and acquire resources may mediate the distinct personality sequelae experienced by children exposed to family adversity. Second, in identifying sources of heterogeneity in family risk, the authors highlight the value of expanding the conceptualization of moderators beyond diathesis-stress models. Consistent with differential susceptibility theory, they describe how temperamental, physiological, and genetic moderators may serve to heighten sensitivity to supportive as well as adverse family conditions rather than simply acting as diatheses that selective sensitize individuals to harsh socialization contexts.
Introduction: Delegation of controlled medical acts by physicians to paramedics is an important component of the prehospital care framework. Where directives indicate that physician input is needed before proceeding with certain interventions, online medical control (a “patch”) exists to facilitate communication between a paramedic and a Base Hospital Physician (BHP) to request an order to proceed with that intervention. The quality and clarity of audio transmission is paramount for effective and efficient communication. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of audio transmission quality on the results of paramedic patch calls. Methods: Prehospital paramedic calls that included a mandatory patch point (excluding requests exclusively for termination of resuscitation and those records which were unavailable) were identified through review of all patch records from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017 for Paramedic Services in our region. Written Ambulance Call Reports (ACRs) and audio recordings of paramedic patches were obtained and reviewed. Pre-specified patch audio quality metrics, markers of transmission quality and comprehension as well as the resulting orders from the BHP were extracted. Differences between groups was compared using chi-square analyses. Results: 214 records were identified and screened initially. 91 ACRs and audio records were included in the analysis. At least one explicit reference to poor or inadequate call audio quality was made in 55/91 (60.4%) of calls and on average, 1.4 times per call. Of the 91 audited call records, 48 of 91 (52.7%) patches experienced an interruption of the call. Each time a call was interrupted, re-initiation of the call was required, introducing a mean [IQR] delay of 81 [33-68] seconds to re-establish verbal communication. Order requests made by paramedics in calls with no interruptions were approved in 30 of 43 patches (70%) while those requests made in calls with one or more interruptions were approved in only 21 of 48 cases (44%) (Δ26.0%; 95%CI 5.6-43.5%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: This retrospective review suggests that audio quality and interruptions of patch calls may impact a physician's ability to approve orders for interventions in the prehospital setting. Focus on infrastructure and technology underlying this important mode of communication may be a fruitful avenue for future improvements in systems where this may be an issue.
Introduction: CAEP recently developed the acute atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter (AFL) [AAFF] Best Practices Checklist to promote optimal care and guidance on cardioversion and rapid discharge of patients with AAFF. We sought to assess the impact of implementing the Checklist into large Canadian EDs. Methods: We conducted a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial in 11 large Canadian ED sites in five provinces, over 14 months. All hospitals started in the control period (usual care), and then crossed over to the intervention period in random sequence, one hospital per month. We enrolled consecutive, stable patients presenting with AAFF, where symptoms required ED management. Our intervention was informed by qualitative stakeholder interviews to identify perceived barriers and enablers for rapid discharge of AAFF patients. The many interventions included local champions, presentation of the Checklist to physicians in group sessions, an online training module, a smartphone app, and targeted audit and feedback. The primary outcome was length of stay in ED in minutes from time of arrival to time of disposition, and this was analyzed at the individual patient-level using linear mixed effects regression accounting for the stepped-wedge design. We estimated a sample size of 800 patients. Results: We enrolled 844 patients with none lost to follow-up. Those in the control (N = 316) and intervention periods (N = 528) were similar for all characteristics including mean age (61.2 vs 64.2 yrs), duration of AAFF (8.1 vs 7.7 hrs), AF (88.6% vs 82.9%), AFL (11.4% vs 17.1%), and mean initial heart rate (119.6 vs 119.9 bpm). Median lengths of stay for the control and intervention periods respectively were 413.0 vs. 354.0 minutes (P < 0.001). Comparing control to intervention, there was an increase in: use of antiarrhythmic drugs (37.4% vs 47.4%; P < 0.01), electrical cardioversion (45.1% vs 56.8%; P < 0.01), and discharge in sinus rhythm (75.3% vs. 86.7%; P < 0.001). There was a decrease in ED consultations to cardiology and medicine (49.7% vs 41.1%; P < 0.01), but a small but insignificant increase in anticoagulant prescriptions (39.6% vs 46.5%; P = 0.21). Conclusion: This multicenter implementation of the CAEP Best Practices Checklist led to a significant decrease in ED length of stay along with more ED cardioversions, fewer ED consultations, and more discharges in sinus rhythm. Widespread and rigorous adoption of the CAEP Checklist should lead to improved care of AAFF patients in all Canadian EDs.
Introduction: This study aimed to examine difference in trauma injuries between bicycle users in winter months compared to summer months. Behavioral variables were also examined to assess seasonal variability, as well as associations with traumas. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all bicycle related traumas presenting to a level I trauma center between the years 1998-2018. All data was collected through a standardized trauma database. Seasonal differences were examined by comparing trauma severity and behavior patterns between patients arriving in the months May-September (summer) and those arriving in November-March (winter). Outcome measures included: Injury Severity Scale, GCS, type of accident, helmet use, demographics and alcohol level. Groups were compared using t-tests and Chi-square analysis as appropriate. Results: A total of 980 bicycle related traumas were analyzed. There were a significantly greater number of injuries in the summer as compared to winter months (879 in summer vs. 101 in winter). While most injuries in both groups were rated in the severe range of the Injury Severity Scale, there were no differences in injury severity, initial GCS, deaths, or head injuries between the two seasons. There were also no differences in drug, alcohol, or helmet use. The only significant difference between seasons was that winter riders were more likely to be male. Overall, helmet use was associated with lower injury severity, less head trauma, and a higher initial GCS. Use of alcohol was associated with less likelihood of wearing a helmet. Conclusion: In conclusion, bicycle use in winter does not appear to be associated with worse outcomes than summer. Public health interventions can continue to encourage winter bicycle use, with the encouragement of helmet use and avoidance of alcohol when cycling as an important protective factor in both seasons.
Introduction: Delegation of controlled medical acts by physicians to paramedics is an important component of the prehospital care framework. Where directives indicate that physician input is needed before proceeding with certain interventions, online medical control (a “patch”) exists to facilitate communication between a paramedic and a Base Hospital Physician (BHP) to request an order to proceed with that intervention. Many factors contribute to success or failure of effective interpersonal communication during a patch call. The aim of this study was to examine areas of potential improvement in communication between paramedics and physicians during the patch call. Methods: Prehospital paramedic calls that included a mandatory patch point (excluding requests for termination of resuscitation and those records which were unavailable) were identified through review of all patch records from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017 for Paramedic Services in our region. Written Ambulance Call Reports (ACRs) and audio recordings of paramedic patches were obtained and reviewed. Pre-specified time intervals, clinical factors, specific patch requests and resulting orders from the BHP to the paramedics were extracted. Differences between groups were compared using t-tests. Results: 214 records were initially identified and screened. 91 ACRs and audio patch records were included in the analysis. 51/91 (56%) of patch order requests for interventions were granted by the BHP. Clarification of information provided by the paramedic or reframing of the paramedic's request was required less often, but not statistically significant, in calls ultimately resulting in granted requests versus those that were not granted (mean 1.4 versus 1.7, Δ-0.28; 95% CI -0.75-0.18 p = 0.64). The mean time from first contact with the BHP to statement of the request was similar in patches where the request was granted and not granted (44.9 versus 46.3, Δ-1.4; 95% CI -12.9-10.2, p = 0.49). Conclusion: The communication between BHPs and paramedics is an important and under-investigated component of prehospital emergency care. This retrospective review presents some novel targets for further research and potential education in patch communication to improve efficiency and quality of prehospital care for patients.
Introduction: Delegation of controlled medical acts by physicians to paramedics is an important component of the prehospital care framework. Where directives indicate that physician input is needed before proceeding with certain interventions, online medical control (a “patch”) exists to facilitate communication between a paramedic and a Base Hospital Physician (BHP) to request an order to proceed with that intervention. The clinical and logistical setting will contribute to the decision to proceed with or withhold an intervention in the prehospital setting. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of various clinical and situational factors on the likelihood of a patch request being granted. Methods: Prehospital paramedic calls that included a mandatory patch point (excluding requests exclusively for termination of resuscitation and those records which were unavailable) were identified through review of all patch records from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017 for Paramedic Services in our region. Written Ambulance Call Reports (ACRs) and audio recordings of paramedic patches were obtained and reviewed. Results: 214 patch records were identified and screened for inclusion. 91 ACRs and audio patch records were included in the analysis. 51 of 91 (56%) patch requests were granted by the BHP. Of the 40 paramedic requests that were not granted, the most commonly cited reason was close proximity to hospital (22/40; 55%) followed by low likelihood of the intervention making a clinical impact in the prehospital setting (11/40; 27.5%). Requests for certain interventions were more likely to be granted than other requests. All requests to perform needle thoracostomy for possible tension pneumothorax, administer atropine for symptomatic bradycardia and treat hemodynamically unstable hyperkalemia were granted (2/2, 3/3 and 7/7, respectively), while requests for synchronized cardioversion (7/19; 37%) and transcutaneous pacing (2/6; 33%) were approved less than half of the time. Conclusion: This retrospective review suggests that requests to perform certain critical and potentially time sensitive interventions are more likely to be granted which calls into question the requirement for a mandatory patch point for these procedures. Furthermore, the interplay between proximity to hospital and the decision to proceed with an intervention potentially informs future modifications to directives to facilitate timely, safe and efficient care.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
To examine whether drug use (DU) is higher in people with eating disorders (EDs) than in matched comparison groups and to collate, summarize and perform a meta analysis where possible on the literature related to DU in people with EDs.
We searched electronic databases including Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL and reviewed studies published from 1994 to August, 2007, in English, German or Spanish against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of 248 papers were eligible for inclusion. Only a total of 16 papers fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and were finally included in the systematic review.
The meta-analysis including all the different drugs for every sort of ED revealed a negligible albeit significant (z=2.34, p<.05), pooled standardized effect size of 0.119. The data showed a high degree of heterogeneity across the studies (X2(74)= 1267.61, p<.001). When ED subdiagnoses were assessed individually, DU was found to be higher in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) as a moderate sized increase in DU was found in this ED subtype (δ =0.462, z=6.69, p=<.001). People with binge eating disorder (BED) had a small increased risk of DU (δ =0.14, z=2.28, p<.05). In contrast, people with anorexia nervosa (AN) had a lower risk of DU (δ=-.167, z=1.81, p=.070, p=NS).
The differential risk observed in BN patients might be related to differences in temperament or might be the result of reward sensitisation as a result of the ED behaviours specifically associated with BN.
Jamie Gundry’s dramatic image of a white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) on the cover of this book reflects the twisting changes in fortune experienced by this species, with a revival that can be attributed to a successful interplay of science, policy and practice. White-tailed eagles were historically much more widely distributed than they are today (Yalden, 2007), once breeding across much of Europe, but by the early twentieth century the species was extinct across much of western and southern Europe. The main cause of its decline was persecution by farmers and shepherds, who considered the eagles a threat to their livestock, but, along with other raptors, white-tailed eagles were also seriously affected by DDT in the 1960s and 1970s, which had disastrous effects on the breeding success of remaining populations.
In the Anthropocene, when our environment is changing rapidly and the windows of opportunity for action to prevent further biodiversity loss are narrow, conservation researchers are increasingly encouraged to think and operate beyond the traditional approaches of producing peer-reviewed papers and presenting results to other members of the research community. Indeed, the perception that researchers belong in their ivory tower, from which they deliver evidence for others to interpret, disseminate and use in decision-making, is thankfully now widely recognised as outdated. The rise of fake news, a deliberate lack of consideration for scientific evidence, and changes to the ways of assessing the value of researchers’ work probably all play a role in supporting this shift in perception. Moreover, for many researchers, the prospect of their work ‘making a difference’ and having an impact on wider society is at least as great a motivation for doing research as generating new knowledge, however interesting that may be.