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In June 2015, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis with 35 cases (23 probable and 12 laboratory-confirmed) occurred among 191 attendees of a residential rehabilitation holiday for paediatric organ transplant patients (n = 49) and their families at a hotel in Somogy county, Hungary. The overall attack rate was 18%. Most of the cases were transplanted children who experienced severe acute disease and required adjustment to their tacrolimus immunosuppression. A retrospective case-control study suggested an association between recreational water exposures and illness: cases were seven times more likely than controls to have swum in the children's pool (odds ratio 7.17; 95% confidence interval 2.9–17.2; P < 0.0001) and five times more likely to have used the jetted whirlpool (odds ratio 5.25; 95% confidence interval 2.1–13.1; P < 0.0001). This was the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Hungary and it is especially unfortunate that it affected vulnerable children who experienced severe symptoms. Cryptosporidium presents specific infection control difficulties in treated recreational water venues; the link to a whirlpool is unusual and highlights the importance of the age-appropriate use of these facilities and reminding users not to immerse their heads or swallow the water. Cryptosporidiosis is more commonly linked to children’ pools where improved bather hygiene and promoting exclusion of diarrhoea cases could help to avoid similar outbreaks.
The vital criterion in selecting a beef system is to ensure that feed requirements match supplies produced on the farm, with a minimum of conflict with other enterprises. Grass must form the basis of any system with emphasis given to grazing. In quantifying feed supplies, the ability of the suckler cow to store summer grazing, as body fat, must also be included.
Traditionally, enterprises have been evaluated on a Gross Margin basis. On combined beef/sheep units, such comparison must be carefully interpreted if misleading conclusions are to be avoided. Adequate supplies of autumn grazing arc key components for both enterprises. Failure to meet these, results in reduced individual performance or increased winter feed requirements. The grassland requirements of both enterprises must therefore be complementary.
May calving and selling calves store in the spring, prior to lambing, achieves these objectives. An important component of such a breeding enterprise is the tax-free, capital accumulation via the herd basis and beneficial effects on the cash flow. Where capital for investing into breeding stock is unavailable, the purchase of week-old calves in January, for sale at 330 kg the following spring or retained for grass finishing, can also integrate successfully with the ewe flock, minimizing dependence on conserved winter feed and accommodation.
This paper combines a study of the rock debris and δD/δ18O isotopic characteristics of basal ice sequences in three representative glaciers in South Georgia and concludes that the debris and ice has been entrained mainly by basal freezing. The size distribution of the rock debris is typical of crushing and abrasion, and reflects transport at the ice–rock interface. The δD/δ18O relationships show that clear ice associated with the debris has accreted through freezing. The white bubbly glacier ice has δD/δ18O relationships typical of precipitation which demonstrates an altitudinal effect between glaciers.
Cryptosporidium parvum is the major cause of livestock and zoonotically-acquired human cryptosporidiosis. The ability to track sources of contamination and routes of transmission by further differentiation of isolates would assist risk assessment and outbreak investigations. Multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats (VNTR) analysis provides a means for rapid characterization by fragment sizing and estimation of copy numbers, but structured, harmonized development has been lacking for Cryptosporidium spp. To investigate potential for application in C. parvum surveillance and outbreak investigations, we studied nine commonly used VNTR loci (MSA, MSD, MSF, MM5, MM18, MM19, MS9-Mallon, GP60 and TP14) for chromosome distribution, repeat unit length and heterogeneity, and flanking region proximity and conservation. To investigate performance in vitro, we compared these loci in 14 C. parvum samples by capillary electrophoresis in three laboratories. We found that many loci did not contain simple repeat units but were more complex, hindering calculations of repeat unit copy number for standardized reporting nomenclature. However, sequenced reference DNA enabled reproducible fragment sizing and inter-laboratory allele assignation based on size normalized to that of the sequenced fragments by both single round and nested polymerase chain reactions. Additional Cryptosporidium loci need to be identified and validated for robust inter-laboratory surveillance and outbreak investigations.
A case-control study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of 46 cases of cryptosporidiosis in visitors to a petting farm in England. Details of exposures on the farm were collected for 38 cases and 39 controls, recruited through snowball sampling. Multivariable logistic regression identified that cases were 5·5 times more likely than controls to have eaten without washing their hands [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·51–19·9, P = 0·01] and 10 times less likely to report being informed of risk of infection on arrival (odds ratio 0·10, 95% CI 0·01–0·71, P = 0·02). An uncommon Cryptosporidium parvum gp60 subtype (IIaA19G1R1) was identified in a lamb faecal sample and all subtyped cases (n = 22). We conclude that lack of verbal advice and non-compliance with hand washing are significantly associated with a risk of cryptosporidiosis on open farms. These findings highlight the public health importance of effectively communicating risk to petting farm visitors in order to prevent future outbreaks of zoonotic infections.
Is there progress in philosophy? A glass-half-full view is that there is some progress in philosophy. A glass-half-empty view is that there is not as much as we would like. I articulate a version of the glass-half-empty view, argue for it, and then address the crucial question of what explains it.
The mining engineer and petrologist Frederick Henry Hatch (1864–1932) left the Geological Survey of Great Britain in 1892, relocating to South Africa. He worked for De Beers and with John Hays Hammond for Cecil Rhodes, finding important new gold fields in Matabeleland and Mashonaland. Control of the gold mines was a significant factor in the tension between Dutch and English settlers that would result in the Second Boer War in 1899. Prior to this, Rhodes and Hammond were behind the abortive Jameson Raid, but Hatch had returned to England briefly and was not implicated. This 1895 work, written with South African mining engineer J. A. Chalmers, reveals the extent of gold reserves in the Transvaal, and the engineering skills needed to exploit them. It deals with geological, economic and legal aspects of the mining industry, remaining of interest to historians of South Africa and the British Empire.