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Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depressed adults. CBT interventions are complex, as they include multiple content components and can be delivered in different ways. We compared the effectiveness of different types of therapy, different components and combinations of components and aspects of delivery used in CBT interventions for adult depression. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials in adults with a primary diagnosis of depression, which included a CBT intervention. Outcomes were pooled using a component-level network meta-analysis. Our primary analysis classified interventions according to the type of therapy and delivery mode. We also fitted more advanced models to examine the effectiveness of each content component or combination of components. We included 91 studies and found strong evidence that CBT interventions yielded a larger short-term decrease in depression scores compared to treatment-as-usual, with a standardised difference in mean change of −1.11 (95% credible interval −1.62 to −0.60) for face-to-face CBT, −1.06 (−2.05 to −0.08) for hybrid CBT, and −0.59 (−1.20 to 0.02) for multimedia CBT, whereas wait list control showed a detrimental effect of 0.72 (0.09 to 1.35). We found no evidence of specific effects of any content components or combinations of components. Technology is increasingly used in the context of CBT interventions for depression. Multimedia and hybrid CBT might be as effective as face-to-face CBT, although results need to be interpreted cautiously. The effectiveness of specific combinations of content components and delivery formats remain unclear. Wait list controls should be avoided if possible.
Hyperbolic polariton modes are highly appealing for a broad range of applications in nanophotonics, including surfaced enhanced sensing, sub-diffractional imaging, and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here we show that attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-spectroscopy using standard spectroscopic tools can launch hyperbolic polaritons in a Kretschmann–Raether configuration. We measure multiple hyperbolic and dielectric modes within the naturally hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride as a function of different isotopic enrichments and flake thickness. This overcomes the technical challenges of measurement approaches based on nanostructuring, or scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy. Ultimately, our ATR approach allows us to compare the optical properties of small-scale materials prepared by different techniques systematically.
We investigate whether the currently available Galactic Cepheid kinematic data can put interesting constraints on large scale low amplitude non-axisymmetry of the Galactic plane rotation pattern. In this connection we address the experimental design problem of where in the Galactic plane additional Cepheids would prove the most useful for the axisymmetric and the non-axisymmetric modeling of the kinematics.
In dimensional understanding of psychosis, auditory verbal hallucinations
(AVH) are unitary phenomena present on a continuum from non-clinical
voice hearing to severe mental illness. There is mixed evidence for this
approach and a relative absence of research into subjective experience of
AVH in early psychosis.
To conduct primary research into the nature of subjective experience of
AVH in first-episode psychosis.
A phenomenological study using diary and photo-elicitation qualitative
techniques investigating the subjective experience of AVH in 25 young
people with first-episode psychosis.
AVH are characterised by: (a) entity, as though from a living being with
complex social interchange; and (b) control, exerting authority with
ability to influence. AVH are also received with passivity, often
accompanied by sensation in other modalities.
A modern detailed phenomenological investigation, without presupposition,
gives results that echo known descriptive psychopathology. However, novel
findings also emerge that may be features of AVH in psychosis not
currently captured with standardised measures.
We have developed and tested a wide-field photometer to detect extrasolar planet transits from the South Pole. The discovery of transiting planets for which masses can be measured by radial velocity is vital to constrain the models of planet formation and evolution. Short of going to space, the South Pole is the best site from which to carry out a such a survey. Based on results from the Doppler velocity surveys and the Vulcan transit search, we expect to detect 10 to 15 transiting planets in two years of operation at the South Pole.
Due to their extremely small luminosity compared to the stars they orbit, planets outside our own Solar System are extraordinarily difficult to detect directly in optical light. Careful photometric monitoring of distant stars, however, can reveal the presence of exoplanets via the microlensing or eclipsing effects they induce. The international PLANET collaboration is performing such monitoring using a cadre of semi-dedicated telescopes around the world. Their results constrain the number of gas giants orbiting 1–7 AU from the most typical stars in the Galaxy. Upgrades in the program are opening regions of “exoplanet discovery space” – toward smaller masses and larger orbital radii – that are inaccessible to the Doppler velocity technique.
Observations of globular clusters in dwarf galaxies can be used to study a variety of topics, including the structure of dark matter halos and the history of vigorous star formation in low-mass galaxies. We report on the properties of the faint globular cluster (MV ~ −3.4) in the M31 dwarf galaxy Andromeda I. This object adds to the growing population of low-luminosity Local Group galaxies that host single globular clusters.
The NASA Ames Research Center's Vulcan photometer is being used in a search for close–in giant extrasolar planets. With our current data reduction system we achieve 0.2–0.8% hour–to–hour relative photometric precision on ∽ 6000 stars brighter than 13th magnitude. Three Galactic-plane fields have so far yielded hundreds of variable stars, including ∽ 50 eclipsing or interacting binaries per field. Several candidate detections have been followed up with radial velocity observations. High-resolution spectroscopy revealed many of the strongest candidates to be grazing eclipsing binaries.
Solar system objects may be studied in space by two general techniques. Everyone is familiar with the exciting aspects of deep space probes: very high spatial resolution; in situ measurements of particles and fields; in situ chemistry studies by mass spectrographs and gas chromatographs; unique phase angle and occultation opportunities. However, the Solar system can also be studied to great advantage by observatories in orbit around the Earth. The broader spectral range available above the terrestrial atmosphere is as important for planetary studies as it is for investigations of more distant astronomical targets. Both techniques will be discussed in this brief report.
We review the current status and future prospects of the PLANET collaboration, an international team of astronomers performing high-precision photometric monitoring of microlensing events. Our photometric precision and sampling is characterised and the suitability of the database for variable star studies is discussed. Preliminary results on K-giant stability are presented.
A sensor which detects mechanical stresses and stores the position and the strength of these loads by color change of embedded quantum dots (QDs) is presented. The top and bottom electrodes of the sensor are inkjet-printed which leads to a fast and accurate deposition of thin (approx. 50 - 300 nm) and conductive layers. The used silver and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythio-phene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) inks are optimized in terms of printability and opportunities of functionality forming without influencing the active layer of the sensor. The active layer of the sensor is spin-coated and consists of the QDs embedded in semi-conducting poly(9-vinylcarba-zole) (PVK). The hole transport characteristic of PVK and the band level alignment of the used materials ensures the preferred injection of only one type of charge carrier into the QDs. As a result the mechanical stress is visualized by a decreasing in photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs.
In the presented work, we have developed VLSI technology processes for new prototype sensors based on the synthesis of boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) and silicon based commercial detectors. The process is based on commercial passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) devices of PD450 and CAM450 types (CANBERRA). A layer of B-NCD of several hundred nanometers thickness and boron concentration up to 1021 atoms/cm3 is grown on the SiOx passivation layer in an ellipsoidal plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor at temperatures from 520-750°C, in hydrogen atmosphere. . The diamond electrode is dry chemically structured and aluminum electrodes are realized before mounting in a three-fold housing for measurements in aqueous solution. The prototype sensors show an alpha spectroscopy resolution of 100 keV for 241Am electroprecipitated from liquid solution.
The galaxy is represented schematically by a three-component model: a disc having the form of a modified exponential distribution, a spheroidal (bulge + nucleus) component and a dark halo component which, following the nomenclature of Einasto, we call the corona. The shapes of these components, chosen on the basis of observations of other galaxies, are consistent with imperfect knowledge of the Galaxy; values of the adjustable parameters are chosen by a least square minimization technique to best fit the most accurate kinematical and dynamical galactic observations. The local radius, circular velocity and escape velocity are found to be (R⊙, V⊙, Vesc) = (9.05 ± 0.33 kpc, 247 ± 13 km/s, 550 ± 24) quite close to the values determined from observations directly. The masses in the three components are (MD, MSp, MC) = (0.78 ± 0.13, 0.81 ± 0.09, 20.3) × 1011 M⊙ for a model with coronal radius of 335 kpc. If the quite uncertain coronal radius is reduced to 100 kpc the model is essentially unchanged except that then MC = 6.65 × 1011 M⊙. The disc and spheroidal components have in either case luminosities (in the visual band of (LD, LSp) = (2.0, 0.2) × 1010 L⊙. The galaxy is a normal giant spiral of type Sb-Sc similar to NGC 4565.
Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.
In the wide-field Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), we investigate the resolved stellar halos of two nearby galaxies (the elliptical Centaurus A and the spiral Sculptor, D ~ 3.7 Mpc) out to a projected galactocentric radius of 150 kpc with Magellan/Megacam. The survey has led to the discovery of ~20 faint satellites to date, plus prominent streams and substructures in two environments that are substantially different from the Local Group, i.e. the Centaurus A group dominated by an elliptical and the loose Sculptor group of galaxies. These discoveries clearly attest to the importance of past and ongoing accretion processes in shaping the halos of these nearby galaxies, and provide the first census of their satellite systems down to an unprecedented MV < −8. The detailed characterization of the stellar content, shape and gradients in the extended halos of Sculptor, Centaurus A, and their dwarf satellites provides key constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution.
Metamaterial structures composed of ordered arrays of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocavities are able to support strong plasmon and Fano resonances in the optical frequencies, where the appeared Fano dips can be utilized in bio/chemical sensing and spectroscopic purposes with a significant sensitivity. Herein, we utilize two concentric compositional Aluminum (Al) nanoshells (Al/Al2O3) to design nanomatryushka (NM) structures in periodic arrays, where each one of Al NPs is covered by a certain thickness of the oxide layer. Depositing studied Al NM arrays on metasurfaces, we determined the optical response of the metamaterial. It is shown that the proposed structure is able to support multiple strong Fano resonances in the visible spectrum. Evaluating the plasmon response of the metamaterial configuration for the presence of various semiconductor metasurfaces (Silicon and GaP), the quality of Fano dips is analyzed for different regimes. In this method, we measured the accuracy and sensitivity of the metamaterial structure by plotting the linear figure of merit (FoM) and quantifying this parameter.
We propose and numerically investigate a tunable metasurface made of an array of graphene ribbons to dynamically control terahertz (THz) wavefront. The metasurface consists of graphene micro ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO2 gap layer. The graphene ribbons are designed to exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO2 layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering up to 2π range for full control of the THz wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle reflected THz beam steering from -53° to +53° with a high reflection efficiency as high as 60% is achieved at 5 THz while the propagation direction of THz beam could be switched within 0.6 ps.