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Analysis and understanding of the role of hydrogen in metals is a significant challenge for the future of materials science, and this is a clear objective of recent work in the atom probe tomography (APT) community. Isotopic marking by deuteration has often been proposed as the preferred route to enable quantification of hydrogen by APT. Zircaloy-4 was charged electrochemically with hydrogen and deuterium under the same conditions to form large hydrides and deuterides. Our results from a Zr hydride and a Zr deuteride highlight the challenges associated with accurate quantification of hydrogen and deuterium, in particular associated with the overlap of peaks at a low mass-to-charge ratio and of hydrogen/deuterium containing molecular ions. We discuss possible ways to ensure that appropriate information is extracted from APT analysis of hydrogen in zirconium alloy systems that are important for nuclear power applications.
Populations of generalist species often comprise of smaller sub-sets of relatively specialized individuals whose niches comprise small sub-sets of the overall population niche. Here, the role of parasite infections in trophic niche specialization was tested using five wild fish populations infected with the non-native parasite Ergasilus briani, a copepod parasite with a direct lifecycle that infects the gill tissues of fish hosts. Infected and uninfected fishes were sampled from the same habitats during sampling events. Prevalence in the host populations ranged between 16 and 67%, with parasite abundances of up to 66 parasites per fish. Although pathological impacts included hyperplasia and localized haemorrhaging of gill tissues, there were no significant differences in the length, weight and condition of infected and uninfected fishes. Stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δ15N) revealed that the trophic niche of infected fishes, measured as standard ellipse area (i.e. the isotopic niche), was consistently and significantly smaller compared with uninfected conspecifics. These niches of infected fishes always sat within that of uninfected fish, suggesting trophic specialization in hosts. These results suggested trophic specialization is a potentially important non-lethal consequence of parasite infection that results from impaired functional traits of the host.
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is frequently used when sampling from hidden populations. In RDS, sampled individuals pass on participation coupons to at most c of their acquaintances in the community (c = 3 being a common choice). If these individuals choose to participate, they in turn pass coupons on to their acquaintances, and so on. The process of recruiting is shown to behave like a new Reed–Frost-type network epidemic, in which 'becoming infected' corresponds to study participation. We calculate R0, the probability of a major 'outbreak', and the relative size of a major outbreak for c < ∞ in the limit of infinite population size and compare to the standard Reed–Frost epidemic. Our results indicate that c should often be chosen larger than in current practice.
Background: SIRPIDS were first described in 2004 in patients admitted in an intensive care unit. Despite few studies attempting to better characterize SIRPIDS, their pathophysiology and clinical implication remain uncertain. Methods: Adult patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with alteration of consciousness who underwent EEG recording in three separate centers were included in this retrospective study. Demographic data and EEG findings were noted. Characteristics of SIRPIDS were documented. The main outcome measures included the incidence of SIRPIDS, association of SIRPIDS with mortality and other EEG characteristics, EEG and clinical predictors of mortality. Results: 416 patients were included and SIRPIDs were identified in 43 patients (10.3%). The proportion of patients with SIRPIDs was not significantly different across the three sites (p=0.3351). Anoxia (p=0.0009), antiepileptic medications (p=0.0109), electrographic seizures (p=0.0259), triphasic waves (p=0.0012) and epileptiform discharges (p=0.0242) were independently associated with the presence of SIRPIDs. Older age (p=0.0050), anoxia (p=<0.0001) and absence of EEG reactivity (p<0.0001), but not SIRPIDs (p=0.1668), were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: In critically ill patients undergoing EEG, SIRPIDs occurred in 10% and were associated with other electrographic abnormalities previously reported to indicate poor prognosis. SIRPIDs were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality.
Predicting how elevated temperatures from climate change alter host–parasite interactions requires understandings of how warming affects host susceptibility and parasite virulence. Here, the effect of elevated water temperature and parasite exposure level was tested on parasite prevalence, abundance and burden, and on fish growth, using Pomphorhynchus laevis and its fish host Squalius cephalus. At 60 days post-exposure, prevalence was higher at the elevated temperature (22 °C) than ambient temperature (18 °C), with infections achieved at considerably lower levels of exposure. Whilst parasite number was significantly higher in infected fish at 22 °C, both mean parasite weight and parasite burden was significantly higher at 18 °C. There were, however, no significant relationships between fish growth rate and temperature, parasite exposure, and the infection parameters. Thus, whilst elevated temperature significantly influenced parasite infection rates, it also impacted parasite development rates, suggesting warming could have complex implications for parasite dynamics and host resistance.
Radio-wave scattering in the Vela supernova remnant acts as an imperfect lens to resolve the pulsar’s radio emission region. We use this lens to measure the pulsar’s emission region. We suggest that refraction of radiation within the pulsar’s magnetosphere is responsible for the observed size.
In host–parasite relationships, parasite prevalence and abundance can vary over time, potentially impacting how hosts are affected by infection. Here, the pathology, growth, condition and diet of a juvenile Cyprinus carpio cohort infected with the non-native cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi was measured in October 2012 (end of their first summer of life), April 2013 (end of first winter) and October 2013 (end of second summer). Pathology revealed consistent impacts, including severe compression and architectural modification of the intestine. At the end of the first summer, there was no difference in lengths and condition of the infected and uninfected fish. However, at the end of the winter period, the condition of infected fish was significantly reduced and by the end of their second summer, the infected fish were significantly smaller and remained in significantly reduced condition. Their diets were significantly different over time; infected fish consumed significantly higher proportions of food items <53 µm than uninfected individuals, a likely consequence of impaired functional traits due to infection. Thus, the sub-lethal impacts of this parasite, namely changes in histopathology, growth and trophic niche were dependent on time and/or age of the fish.
In 1969, Robert E. Gregg collected five species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in three Subarctic localities near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, which he documented in a 1972 publication in The Canadian Entomologist. To determine whether there have been any additions to the local fauna – as might be predicted to occur in response to a warming climate and increased traffic to the Port of Churchill in the intervening 40 years – we re-collected ants from the same localities in 2012. We identified the ants we collected from Gregg’s sampling sites using both traditional morphological preparations and DNA barcoding. In addition, we examined specimens from Gregg’s initial collection that are accessioned at the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America). Using this integrative approach we report seven species present at the same sites Gregg sampled 40 years earlier. We conclude that the apparent increase is likely not due to any arrivals from more southerly distributed ants, but to the increased resolution provided by DNA barcodes to resident species complexes with a complicated history. We provide a brief synopsis of these results and their taxonomic context.
In this work we introduce a stochastic model for the spread of a virus in a cell population where the virus has two ways of spreading: either by allowing its host cell to live and duplicate, or by multiplying in large numbers within the host cell, causing the host cell to burst and thereby let the virus enter new uninfected cells. The model is a kind of interacting Markov branching process. We focus in particular on the probability that the virus population survives and how this depends on a certain parameter λ which quantifies the ‘aggressiveness’ of the virus. Our main goal is to determine the optimal balance between aggressive growth and long-term success. Our analysis shows that the optimal strategy of the virus (in terms of survival) is obtained when the virus has no effect on the host cell's life cycle, corresponding to λ = 0. This is in agreement with experimental data about real viruses.
The criteria set out by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to identify threatened species requires information on population trends which, for priority lichen species within Scotland, is lacking. Collecting such data is problematic as there is a lack of empirical information on the performance of different sampling designs and survey methodologies. Using Pseudocyphellaria norvegica as an example species, we tested differences in the efficiency of 3 transect patterns and a 20 minute search for surveying 100×100 m cells of potentially suitable habitat. The methods were not intended to census the total population of the cells but, rather, to provide a standardized, repeatable estimate of the population density to allow detection of trends through time. We also tested the repeatability of the methods between surveyors. The results provided no evidence to suggest that controlled survey methodologies using fixed transect patterns were any better in terms of consistency between surveyors or numbers of occupied trees found than 20 minute searches of the areas within each 100×100 m cell deemed suitable for the target species by an experienced surveyor. Given that following the fixed transect patterns took approximately twice as long as a 20 minute search, the search method would clearly be more cost-effective when there are large numbers of cells to survey. For all survey methods variability between surveyors was high, meaning that it would be extremely difficult to detect temporal changes in populations, and hence identify population trends. We also examined the extent to which recording presence/absence at the 1 ha scale might improve consistency between surveyors and found that it reduced, but did not eliminate, the surveyor variability. Recording only presence/absence would allow greater numbers of cells to be surveyed using the same level of resources, but would reduce the amount of information available per cell for use in analysis of population trends. We conclude that controlling inter-surveyor variability while collecting adequate data for population trend analysis is a major issue when planning and implementing any large-scale survey of lichen species.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We characterise the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz. We combine repeated position-switched observations of the source G300.968+01.145 with a map of the same source in order to estimate the pointing reliability of the position-switched observations and, by extension, the MALT90 survey; we estimate our pointing uncertainty to be 8 arcsec. We model the two strongest sources of systematic gain variability as functions of elevation and time-of-day and quantify the remaining absolute flux uncertainty. Corrections based on these two variables reduce the scatter in repeated observations from 12%–25% down to 10%–17%. We find no evidence for intrinsic source variability in G300.968+01.145. For certain applications, the corrections described herein will be integral for improving the absolute flux calibration of MALT90 maps and other observations using the Mopra telescope at 90 GHz.
We review properties of all known collisionally pumped (class I) methanol maser series based on observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Mopra radio telescope. Masers at 36, 84, 44 and 95 GHz are most widespread, while 9.9, 25, 23.4 and 104 GHz masers are much rarer, tracing the most energetic shocks. A survey of many southern masers at 36 and 44 GHz suggests that these two transitions are highly complementary. The 23.4 GHz maser is a new type of rare class I methanol maser, detected only in two high-mass star-forming regions, G357.97-0.16 and G343.12-0.06, and showing a behaviour similar to 9.9, 25 and 104 GHz masers. Interferometric positions suggest that shocks responsible for class I masers could arise from a range of phenomena, not merely an outflow scenario. For example, some masers might be caused by interaction of an expanding Hii region with its surrounding molecular cloud. This has implications for evolutionary sequences incorporating class I methanol masers if they appear more than once during the evolution of the star-forming region. We also make predictions for candidate maser transitions in the ALMA frequency range.
Over the past 3 years, we have conducted a survey of 100 square degrees of the southern Galactic plane with the Mopra radiotelescope (HOPS). The survey includes observations of multiple spectral lines in the 12 mm band, with the most important being the water maser transition at 22.2 GHz and the non-metastable inversion transitions of ammonia. We report on initial results from HOPS, including the detection of 540 water masers, about two-thirds of which appear to be new detections. We also find widespread emission in the NH3 (1,1) line, as well as detec tions in the NH3 (2,2), (3,3), (6,6) and (9,9) lines.