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Transportation industries are the centrepoint for some remarkable transformations driven by technology development and innovation. However, we have seen limited advances on methods to address reliability and resilience challenges emerging with increasingly complex systems and environments. This paper presents the outcomes of an European Reliability Research Roadmapping workshop, collating the views of automotive, aerospace and defence industries to identify current reliability challenges and research gaps and to define directions for future research and skills development.
The virtual environment for radiotherapy training (VERT) helps students to gain technical skills and understanding of 3D anatomy and dosimetry. It has potential as a tool for treatment plan evaluation, although little formal evidence currently supports this.
This paper reports findings from a plan evaluation workshop that facilitated comparison of VERT plan evaluation tools with those provided by conventional treatment planning software (TPS).
Students on a pre-registration Post-Graduate Diploma in Radiotherapy worked in small groups evaluating lung plans using both VERT and Eclipse TPS tools. All students were invited to provide ratings concerning how helpful each modality was for a range of evaluation parameters and preferences for use.
Most students (11 out of 14) found the session useful and expressed a desire to use VERT in future plan evaluation. The TPS was perceived to be more helpful with constraint-based evaluation while VERT was more helpful with evaluating plans for clinical set-up and delivery (p < 0·001).
Student therapeutic radiographers found VERT to be helpful as a plan evaluation tool alongside standard TPS tools, in particular for clinical set-up and delivery aspects of planning. Future work is ongoing to identify the specific impact of VERT as a plan evaluation tool for both students and qualified planners.
The novel Volumetric Image Matching Environment for Radiotherapy (VIMER) was developed to allow users to view both computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) datasets within the same 3D model in virtual reality (VR) space. Stereoscopic visualisation of both datasets combined with custom slicing tools and complete freedom in motion enables alternative inspection and matching of the datasets for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT).
Material and methods:
A qualitative study was conducted to explore the challenges and benefits of VIMER with respect to image registration. Following training and use of the software, an interview session was conducted with a sample group of six university staff members with clinical experience in image matching.
User discomfort and frustration stemmed from unfamiliarity with the drastically different input tools and matching interface. As the primary advantage, the users reported match inspection efficiency when presented with the 3D volumetric renderings of the planning and secondary CBCT datasets.
This study provided initial evidence for the achievable benefits and limitations to consider when implementing a 3D voxel-based dataset comparison VR tool including a need for extensive training and the minimal interruption to IGRT workflow. Key advantages include efficient 3D anatomical interpretation and the capability for volumetric matching.
Massive to lobate volcanic flows and brecciated hyaloclastite units in the Abitibi greenstone belt allow investigation of Late Archæan seafloor alteration and associated incorporation into these rocks of nitrogen (N) biogeochemical signatures. In this suite (the Blake River Group), hyaloclastite units containing putative microbial ichnofossils are particularly enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Ba, Cs), B, and Li, consistent with their having experienced the greatest fluid–rock interaction during subseafloor hydrothermal alteration. Similarly, silicate-δ18O and δ15N values for samples from the hyaloclastites show the greatest shifts from plausible magmatic values. The chemical and isotopic patterns in these tholeiitic igneous rocks greatly resemble those in modern altered seafloor basalts, consistent with the preservation of an Archæan seafloor alteration signature. The N enrichments and shifts in δ15N appear to reflect stabilization of illite and interaction with fluids carrying sedimentary/organic signatures. Enrichments of N (and the δ15N of this N) in altered glass volcanic rocks on Earth's modern and ancient seafloor point to the potential utility of N for tracing past and present biogeochemical processes in similar rocks at/near the Mars surface.