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Addiction is characterized by excessive desire for a particular substance or behavioral incentive at the expense of other life rewards. Addictive desire can develop even in absence of any associated increase in pleasure, and also in absence of withdrawal. Here we review evidence that the brain mechanisms underlying desire or ‘wanting’ can operate independently from those mediating pleasure, or "liking." That is, "wanting" and "liking" are mediated by two anatomically and neurochemically distinct brain mechanisms that normally interact together to influence motivation, but can become dissociated in the transition to addiction. Pleasure "liking" is the hedonic impact of a pleasant stimulus and is causally amplified by a brain system of several functionally interactive but anatomically distributed locations referred to as "hedonic hotspots." These hedonic hotspots are localized subregions within larger brain structures, and are relatively sensitive to disruption. By contrast, "wanting" or the subconscious desire for reward or reward-related cues is much more robust, and mediated by a larger brain system. "Wanting" can be generated by dopamine enhancements as well as by opioid enhancements in several broadly defined regions throughout mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In susceptible individuals, mesolimbic circuitry can become hyperreactive or sensitized (e.g., through previous drug experience), so that "rewards" and their related cues evoke even greater dopamine release and "wanting." Sensitized "wanting" becomes harder to resist, which can spur on excessive and compulsive pursuit and relapse in addiction. Importantly, this sensitization of brain "wanting" systems need not be accompanied by an enhancement of brain "liking" (i.e., dopamine manipulations do not appear to effect pleasure). In this chapter, we also highlight possible mechanisms for how some drugs or behaviors become the specific focus of excessive but narrow pursuit, usually involving mesolimbic brain interactions with areas such as the amygdala. Further we demonstrate that behavioral addictions such as food addiction and gambling, like drug addiction, are accompanied by sensitization of mesolimbic brain "wanting" systems in the transition to addiction.
Seasonal patterns in hospitalizations have been observed in various psychiatric disorders, however, it is unclear whether they also exist in schizophrenia. Previous studies found mixed results and those reporting the presence of seasonality differ regarding the characteristics of these patterns. Further, they are inconclusive whether sex is an influencing factor. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if seasonal patterns in hospitalizations can be found in schizophrenia, with special regard to a possible influence of sex, by using a large national dataset.
Data on all hospital admissions within Austria due to schizophrenia (F20.0–F20.6) for the time period of 2003–2016 were included. Age standardized monthly variation of hospitalization for women and men was analyzed and the level of significance adjusted for multiple testing.
The database comprised of 110,735 admissions (59.6% men). Significant seasonal variations were found in the total sample with hospitalization peaks in January and June and a trough in December (p < 0.0001). No significant difference in these patterns was found between women and men with schizophrenia (p < 0.0001).
Our study shows that schizophrenia-related hospitalizations follow a seasonal pattern in both men and women. The distribution of peaks might be influenced by photoperiod changes which trigger worsening of symptoms and lead to exacerbations in schizophrenia. Further research is necessary to identify underlying factors influencing seasonal patterns and to assess whether a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia is especially vulnerable to the impact of seasonal variations.
The aim of the study is to validate an enlarged version of the Lie/Bet questionnaire for screening pathological gambling behaviour (Johnson, Hamer & Nora, 1998) in French. This version of the Lie/Bet has the following features: it was enlarged with one item derived from de CAGE screening for alcoholism (Ewing, 1984) and items were rated on a 4-points scale ranging from ‘All the time’ to ‘Never’ instead of being rated on a ‘Yes/No’ scale. The addition of the third item meets the need for a measure of social irritability about gambling. The use of 4-options responses scales is motivated by the necessity to measure severity of problem gambling and allow parametric epidemiological analysis. The study was conducted on three samples: one group of people concerned with gambling who participated to an online survey about gambling (N= 36), one group of out patients (N=33) and one group of respondents to the Swiss Health Survey 2007 (N=75). Analyses were conducted to measure internal consistency and convergent validity of the instrument. Results show good internal consistency of the enlarged Lie/Bet as well as good convergent validity.
The Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology aims at finding a design solution that uses a minimum amount of cumulative energy demand over the different phases of the vehicle's life cycle, while complying with a set of functional constraints. This effectively balances trade-offs, and therewith avoids sub-optimal shifting between the energy demand for the cradle-to-production of materials, operation of the vehicle, and end-of-life phases. The present work describes the extension of the LCEO methodology to perform holistic product system optimisation. The constrained design of an automotive component and the design of a subset of the processes which are applied to it during its life cycle are simultaneously optimised to achieve a minimal product system life cycle energy. A subset of the processes of the end-of-life phase of a vehicle's roof are modeled through a continuous formulation. The roof is modeled as a sandwich structure with its design variables being the material compositions and the thicknesses of the different layers. The results show the applicability of the LCEO methodology to product system design and the use of penalization to ensure solution feasibility.
Zn status may affect fatty acid (FA) metabolism because it acts as a cofactor in FA desaturase and elongase enzymes. Zn supplementation affects the FA desaturases of Zn-deficient rats, but whether this occurs in humans is unclear. We evaluated the associations between baseline plasma Zn (PZn) concentration and plasma total phospholipid FA composition, as well as the effect of daily consumption of Zn-fortified water on FA status in Beninese children. A 20-week, double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 186 school age children. The children were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of Zn-fortified, filtered water delivering on average 2·8 mg Zn/d or non-fortified filtered water. Plasma total phospholipid FA composition was determined using capillary GLC and PZn concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry. At baseline, PZn correlated positively with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, r 0·182; P=0·024) and the DGLA:linoleic acid (LA) ratio (r 0·293; P<0·000), and negatively with LA (r −0·211; P=0·009) and the arachidonic acid:DGLA ratio (r −0·170; P=0·036). With the intervention, Zn fortification increased nervonic acid (B: 0·109; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·218) in all children (n 186) and more so in children who were Zn-deficient (n 60) at baseline (B: 0·230; 95 % CI 0·023, 0·488). In conclusion, in this study, Zn-fortified filtered water prevented the reduction of nervonic acid composition in the plasma total phospholipids of children, and this effect was stronger in Zn-deficient children. Thus, Zn status may play an important role in FA desaturation and/or elongation.
Particle image velocimetry and filtered Rayleigh scattering experiments were performed over a range of Reynolds numbers to study the scaling and structure of a smooth, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number of 7.5. The measurements indicate few, if any, dynamic differences due to Mach number. Mean and fluctuating streamwise velocities in the outer layer show strong similarity to incompressible flows at comparable Reynolds numbers when scaled according to van Driest and Morkovin. In addition, correlation lengths and structure angles based on velocity statistics were found to be less sensitive to compressibility than indicated by previous studies based on density fields or mass-weighted statistics, suggesting that the density and velocity fields obey different scaling. Finally, the boundary layer displays uniform momentum zones, with the number of these zones similar to incompressible boundary layers at comparable Reynolds numbers.
Global mental health movements increasingly highlight social integration as a key outcome for mental health services. This creates a pressing need to better articulate and measure this outcome. Much of the work in social integration thus far has been in high-income countries (HIC), and is not directly applicable across diverse socio-cultural environments. We discuss promising concepts and measures of social integration with potential for global cross-cultural application. Then, we present some of the challenges of developing measures for global and cross-cultural use, and suggest ways to confront these challenges. Although we focus primarily on adults with severe mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the questions we raise are also relevant to children, other mental disorders and HIC.
We identify and describe four distinct conceptual frameworks for social integration that have emerged over the past decade. Then, we discuss the challenge of developing corresponding measures, and the further challenge of developing global cross-cultural measures. We suggest that a key concept shared across much previous and emerging work is active participation in community and civic life. As a platform for future development of global cross-cultural measures of this and other concepts, we propose guidelines and present examples of feasible, previously used strategies.
Emerging concepts of social integration hold great promise, but as yet, there are no corresponding measures suitable for global cross-cultural use. We propose that it is feasible to develop such measures, and that their development will facilitate the advance of community mental health services and the science of global mental health.
The paper deals with tsetse (family Glossinidae) control and aims at improving the methodology for precision targeting interventions in an adaptive pest management system. The spatio-temporal distribution of Glossina morsitans submorsitans Newstead, and Glossina pallidipes Austen, at Ethiopia's Keto pilot site, is analyzed with the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology that focus on clustering and spatial associations between species and between sexes. Both species displayed an aggregated distribution characterised by two main patches in the south and an extended gap in the north. Spatial patterns were positively correlated and stable in most cases, with the exception of the early dry season and the short rainy season when there were differences between the species and sexes. For precision targeting interventions, the presented methods here are more effective than the previously used geostatistical analyses for identifying and delimiting hot spots on maps, measuring shapes and sizes of patches, and discarding areas with low tsetse density. Because of the improved knowledge on hot spot occurrences, the methods allow a better delimitation of the territory for control operations and a more precise computation of the number of the relatively expensive traps used for monitoring and control purposes.
This paper constitutes a review on the welfare aspects of piglet castration that considers the scientific literature published after 2004. Castrating during the neonatal period (1 to 3 days of age) is clearly painful. In addition, inflammatory processes may take place at the sites of incision, thus adding further pain to the procedure. Surgical castration with general and local anaesthesia, in combination with long-term analgesia, has been shown to reduce pain but the additional handling and injection of the anaesthetic, the effectiveness and limited safety margins have to be thoroughly evaluated. Raising entire males during the whole fattening period or immunocastration of males towards the end of the fattening period are other alternatives with welfare benefits in young pigs compared to current surgical castration, but with some potential welfare drawbacks regarding handling stress and behaviour during fattening. Based on the current knowledge, it can be concluded that sperm sexing and raising entire males after genetic control of boar taint are potentially preferable alternatives to current practices, but need further research, as these methods are not yet available.
CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals are embedded in para-sexiphenyl (p-6P) based hybrid light emitting diode devices providing red, green and blue (RGB) emission compatible to the HDTV color triangle. By structural and optical investigations the device parameters are optimized. The device performance is analyzed in respect to electrical and spectral response resulting in current-voltage characteristics with small leakage currents and low onset voltages. Furthermore the devices provide high color purity and stability which is demonstrated by their narrow emission line widths. All these results underline the ability of the presented device configuration to act as a future candidate for display applications.
Increasingly, population modeling and systems analysis are being used to examine the complex issues that are at the heart of CP/IPM (crop production and integrated pest management) and biological control. The design of economically sound and sustainable crop management strategies requires a thorough understanding of the whole production system including arthropod pests, pathogens, and weeds. More than three decades ago, Huffaker and Croft (1976) stressed the need to rely on systems analysis and interdisciplinary collaboration to accomplish this task. Soon the question arose as to how mathematical techniques employed in the analysis of physical systems could be adapted to solve agroecosystem problems that are principally biological in nature and that focus on population management (Gutierrez and Wang, 1977; Getz and Gutierrez, 1982). Simple models of population dynamics often excluded the biological details for mathematical tractability and hence are frequently inadequate instruments for field application. Individual-based models have been used to explore population interactions (e.g. De Angelis and Gross, 1992), but often the rules for the interactions at the individual level are unknown. Simulation approaches stress biological realism and completeness and some show promise for exploring system structure and function, especially physiologically based models (PBM) (Gutierrez and Wang, 1977), sufficient to gain insights into complex quantitative relationships (see Gilbert et al., 1976; Gutierrez and Baumgärtner, 1984a; b; Graf et al., 1990a; Gutierrez, 1996; Di Cola et al., 1998). In this chapter we will consider only physiologically based multitrophic population dynamics models, or models with the potential to be so extended.
X-ray computed micro tomography (CT) is an alternative technique to the classical methods such as mercury intrusion (MIP) and gas pycnometry (HP) to obtain the porosity, pore-size distribution, and density of porous materials. Besides the advantage of being a nondestructive method, it gives not only bulk properties, but also spatially resolved information. In the present work, uniaxially pressed porous alumina performs activated by titanium were analyzed with both the classical techniques and CT. The benefits and disadvantages of the applied measurement techniques were pointed out and discussed. With the generated data, development was proposed for an infiltration model under ideal conditions for the production of metal matrix composites (MMC) by pressureless melt infiltration of porous ceramic preforms. Therefore, the reliability of the results, received from different investigation techniques, was proved statistically and stereologically.
In this paper an overview of our developments towards industrialization of thin film silicon PV modules is presented. Amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells have been developed in medium size single-chamber R&D KAI-M PECVD reactors. High initial efficiencies of 10.6 % and stabilized of 8.6 % could be achieved for a 1 cm2 a-Si:H p-i-n solar cell of 0.20 m thick i-layer deposited on TCO from Asahi U type (SnO2). On our in-house developed LPCVD ZnO we could further improve the stabilized a-Si:H p-i-n efficiency to a similar level of 8.5 %. Incorporating such cells in commercial available front TCO of lower quality still leads to high initial mini-module aperture efficiencies (10 × 10 cm2) of 9.1% and stabilized ones of 7.46% (independently measured by ESTI JRC-Ispra).
Transferring the processes from the KAI-M to the industrial size 1.1×1.25 m2 KAI-1200 R&D reactors resulted in a-Si:H modules of 110.6 W using commercial TCO, respectively 112.4 W when applying in-house developed LPCVD front ZnO. Both initial module performances have been independently measured by ESTI laboratories of JRC Ispra. A typical temperature coefficient for the module power of -0.22 %/°C (relative loss) has been deduced from temperature dependent I-V characteristics at ESTI laboratories of JRC Ispra. Finally, micromorph mini-modules of 10 % initial aperture efficiency have been fabricated.