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This study aimed to assess the experiences and outcomes of patients who underwent surgical repair of a perilymph fistula in Norfolk, UK.
The study involved a retrospective questionnaire-based patient survey and case note review of patients who had undergone tympanotomy and perilymph fistula repair between 1998 and 2012 in two district general hospitals.
Fourteen patients underwent 20 procedures, of whom 7 completed the pre- and post-operative Vertigo Symptom Scale. In five patients, there was no obvious precipitating cause. Perilymph fistula was precipitated by noise in one patient, by a pressure-increasing event in six patients and by trauma in two patients. The Vertigo Symptom Scale scores showed a statistically significant improvement following surgical repair, from a median of 67 (out of 175) pre-operatively to 19 post-operatively.
In selected patients with vertigo, perilymph fistula should be considered; surgical repair can significantly improve symptoms.
n-3 Long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) intake during infancy is important for neurodevelopment; however, previous studies of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been inconclusive possibly due to an insufficient dose and limited methods of assessment. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of direct supplementation with high-dose fish oil (FO) on infant neurodevelopmental outcomes and language. In the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 420 healthy term infants were assigned to receive a DHA-enriched FO supplement (containing at least 250 mg DHA/d and 60 mg EPA/d) or a placebo (olive oil) from birth to 6 months. Assessment occurred at 18 months via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition; BSID-III) and the Child Behavior Checklist. Language assessment occurred at 12 and 18 months via the Macarthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory. The FO group had significantly higher erythrocyte DHA (P = 0·03) and plasma phospholipid DHA (P = 0·01) levels at 6 months of age relative to placebo. In a small subset analysis (about 40 % of the total population), children in the FO group had significantly higher percentile ranks of both later developing gestures at 12 and 18 months (P = 0·007; P = 0·002, respectively) and the total number of gestures (P = 0·023; P = 0·006, respectively). There was no significant difference between the groups in the standard or composite scores of the BSID-III. The results suggest that improved postnatal n-3 LC-PUFA intake in the first 6 months of life using high-dose infant FO supplementation was not beneficial to global infant neurodevelopment. However, some indication of benefits to early communicative development was observed.
In this paper, we determine the semigroup End D of endomorphisms of the infinite dihedral group D, and give a multiplication table for it. We determine the additive structure of the near-rings E(D) generated by the endomorphisms of D, A(D) generated by the automorphisms of D and I(D) generated by the inner automorphisms of D, and determine their radicals and all their maximal right ideals.
A front on the Great Plateau separates tidally mixed water of the North Channel from quieter less saline surface layers of the Outer Firth. These water bodies exchange about 1·6 × 104m3 s−1, leading to a residence time of two months in the Outer Firth surface layers. The position of the front is determined by the balance of mixing and buoyancy supply. The wind modulates weak tidal currents in the Outer Firth by driving surface currents and setting up deeper compensation flows. Deep water in the Arran Deep and Kilbrannan Sound is irregularly renewed by inflow of dense water over the Eastern Plateau from autumn to spring of about 1 × 104m3 s−1 but stagnates in summer below a thermocline. A minor part of this renewal comes over the Davaar sill into Kilbrannan Sound.
Bottom water of the fjordic sea-lochs is isolated in summer and renewed during the winter. The renewals occur by density currents flowing in from the sills and these produce a characterising grading of the bottom sediments from coarse to fine away from the sills.
The connection between the structure of a near-ring and that of the group on which it acts is used to obtain results concerning the structure of near-rings. A generalized R series is defined for an R module, where R is a zero-symmetric left near-ring, and it is shown that all R modules have maximal R series. The idea of a near-ring which annihilates a series is introduced and some easy consequences of the definition are pointed out. Semi-primitive near-rings are introduced and a general structural result connecting the last two ideas is given. Some special cases which generalize earlier results on endomorphism near-rings are stated. Finally some of the limitations of the idea of semi-primitive near-rings are shown, and some applications are given, in particular to the endomorphism near-rings of soluble groups and of the symmetric groups.
Let G be a group and S a group of automorphisms of G. The simplicity of the near-ring, MS(G), of zero preserving functions on G which commute with the elements of S, is investigated. The relationship between simplicity, 2-primitivity and containment relations among the stabilizers of elements of G is explored.
This paper is concerned with the structure of M = Maps(G), the near-ring of all mappings from a group G to itself which commute with a group S* of automorphisms of G. Here S is S* together with the zero endomorphism. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the pair (G, S) are obtained for M to be (i) regular, (ii) unit regular, (iii) an equivalence near-ring. These conditions take a very simple form. In the case (iii), the two-sided M-subgroups of M are determined. The next result shows that under suitable conditions, M is a simple near-ring. A definition of transitivity is given for subnear-rings of M, and some properties of transitive near-rings are proved. Finally two examples are given to show that all the classes of near-rings considered are distinct.
Amorphous, polycrystalline, and single crystal nanometer dimension particles can be formed in a variety of substrates by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Such composite colloidal materials exhibit unique optical properties that could be useful in optical devices, switches, and waveguides. However colloids formed by blanket implantation are not uniform in size due to the nonuniform density of the implant, resulting in diminution of the size dependent optical properties. The object of the present work is to form more uniform size particles arranged in a 2-dimensional lattice by using a finely focused ion beam to implant identical ion doses only into nanometer size regions located at each point of a rectangular lattice. Initial work is being done with a 30 keV Ga beam implanted into Si. Results of particle formation as a function of implant conditions as analyzed by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy will be presented and discussed.
Ion implantation is a versatile technique by which compound semiconductor nanocrystals may be synthesized in a wide variety of host materials. The component elements that form the compound of interest are implanted sequentially into the host, and nanocrystalline precipitates then form during thermal annealing. Using this technique, we have synthesized compound semiconductor nanocrystal precipitates of ZnS, CdS, PbS, and CdSe in a fused silica matrix. The resulting microstructures and size distributions were investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Several unusual microstructures were observed, including a band of relatively large nanocrystals at the end of the implant profile for ZnS and CdSe, polycrystalline agglomerates of a new phase such as γ-Zn 2SiO4, and the formation of central voids inside CdS nanocrystals. While each of these microstructures is of fundamental interest, such structures are generally not desirable for potential device applications for which a uniform, monodispersed array of nanocrystals is required. Methods were investigated by which these unusual microstructures could be eliminated.
The dynamics of nanoparticle formation by laser ablation into background gases are revealed by gated-ICCD photography of photoluminescence (PL) and Rayleigh-scattering (RS) from gas-suspended nanoparticles. These techniques, along with gated-spectroscopy of PL from isolated, gassuspended nanoparticles, permit fundamental investigations of nanomaterial growth, doping, and luminescence properties prior to deposition for thin films. Using the time-resolved diagnostics, particles unambiguously formed in the gas phase were collected on TEM grids. Silicon nanoparticles, 1-10 nm in diameter, were deposited following laser ablation into 1-10 TorrAror He. Three in situ PL bands (1.8, 2.6, 3.2 eV) similar to oxidized porous silicon were measured, but with a pronounced vibronic structure. Structureless photoluminescence bands were reproduced in the films (2.1, 2.7, 3.2 eV) only after standared annealing. The ablation of metal zinc into Ar/02 is also reported for the preparation of < 10 nm diameter hexagonal zincite nanocrystals, The particles were analyzed by bright field and Z-contrast TEM and high resolution EELS.
Oriented ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles with the face-centered tetragonal L10 structure were produced in Al2O3 single crystal hosts by ion implantation and annealing. Both the orientation and particle-size of the FePt particles depend strongly on the implantation conditions. The magnetic coercivities are extremely high, reaching values in excess of 20 kOe for Pt concentrations of ∼45% in the FePt alloy. Ferromagnetic FePt nanoparticles were also produced in amorphous SiO2 by ion implantation and annealing.
Ion implantation coupled with annealing is a versatile and flexible approach to creating ferromagnetic near-surface nanocomposites that represent a wide range of particle/host combinations. We have used ion implantation and thermal processing to create a layer of Co nanoparticles in a sapphire host that was subsequently irradiated with Xe, Pt, or Pb in order to systematically modify the magnetic properties of the composite. Transmission electron microscopy (reported in an accompanying paper in this volume) was used to carry out a detailed characterization of the microstructure of the resulting near-surface composites whose magnetic properties were determined using SQUID magnetometry or magnetic circular dichroism. These composites exhibit magnetic hysteresis with coercivities ranging from near zero (i.e., superparamagnetism) up to 1.2 kG - depending on the composition and microstructure. We also present the results of preliminary experiments in which we attempt to control the spatial distribution of magnetic elements within ion-implanted ferromagnetic nanocomposites. The results demonstrate methods for tailoring the magnetic properties of nanocomposites produced by ion implantation for specific applications.
Ion implantation and thermal processing were used to create a layer of Co nanoclusters embedded in the near-surface region of single-crystal sapphire. The Co nanoparticles ranged in size from 2-20 nm and were crystallographically aligned with the host sapphire. Specimens were irradiated with Xe and Pt ions, and the microstructural evolution of the nanoclusters was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. With increasing Pt or Xe ion dose, the Co nanoparticles lost their initially excellent faceting, although they remained crystalline. The host Al2O3 became amorphous and the resulting microstructure consisted of a buried amorphous layer containing the still-crystalline Co nanoparticles. EDS mapping and electron diffraction were used to determine the distribution of the implanted species, and the magnetic properties of the composite were measured with a SQUID magnetometer. The results show that ion beams can be applied to modify and control the properties of ferromagnetic nanocomposites, and, combined with lithographic techniques, will find applications in exercising fine-scale spatial control over the properties of magnetic materials.
Ion-implantation and thermal-processing methods have been used to form nanophase magnetic precipitates of metallic cobalt that are embedded in the near-surface region of single crystals of Al2O3. The Co precipitates are isolated, single-crystal particles that are crystallographically oriented with respect to the host Al2O3 lattice. Embedded nanophase Co precipitates were formed by the implantation of Co+ at an energy of 140 keV and a dose of 8 × 1016 ions/cm2 followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The implanted/annealed Co depth profile, particle size distributions and shapes, and the orientational relationship between the nanophase precipitates and the host crystal lattice were determined using RBS/channeling, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Magneto-optical effects arising from Co precipitates formed in the near-surface region of Al2O3 were observed and characterized using magnetic circular dichroism. Magnetic properties of the Co-particle/host nanocomposites were investigated in the temperature range of 77 to 295 K in applied fields of up to 10 kG using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Implantation of the Co particles by Pt or Xe ions produced a large anisotropic increase in their coercivity. Accordingly, these magnetic nanoparticle systems may be of interest for magnetic data storage applications. Details of the magnetic properties of the Co/Al2O3 nanocomposites including their retentivity, coercivity, saturation field, and magnetic anisotropy are presented.
Ion implantation and thermal processing techniques have been used to form embedded ferromagnetic nanophase precipitates and thereby create magneto-optically active near-surface regions on otherwise inactive materials. Ferromagnetic precipitates were formed by first implanting Fe+ or Ni− into Y0.15Zr0.85O1.93(YSZ) with an implant energy of 140 keV, a fluence of 8.0 × 1016 ions/cm2, and at a temperature of-189°C. After implantation, the specimens were annealed at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1100°C in several types of reducing atmospheres. X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis of the Fe- or Ni-implanted/annealed specimens revealed that crystallographically coherent precipitates of metallic α-Fe, magnetite (Fe3O4), or Ni could be formed in YSZ depending on the annealing conditions. In particular, the cooling rate was established as the critical factor that determined whether Fe or Fe3O4 precipitates were created. Magneto-optical effects arising from ferromagnetic precipitates of Fe, Fe3O4, and Ni in the near-surface region of YSZ were observed and characterized using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). The magneto-optical response of the α-Fe, Fe3O4, and Ni precipitates was markedly different as indicated by the MCD-detected hysteresis curves. The precipitation mechanism, the chemical nature of the precipitates, and the particle-size distributions resulting from different annealing conditions were investigated and correlated with the precipitate magneto-optical properties.
ZnAl2O4 spinel has been formed in Al2O3 by ion implantation. Sequential implantation of Zn and 0 in overlapping profiles followed by annealing in Ar + H2 gives rise to a nearly continuous epitaxial layer of ZnAl2O4 oriented with (111) planes parallel to (0001) planes of Al2O3. If only Zn is implanted, then discrete bands of ZnAl2O4 oriented with (422) planes parallel to (0001) planes of Al2O3 are produced. By similar methods, oriented MgAl2O4 spinel also has been produced in Al2O3 by sequential Mg + O implantation.
Starting from two-step anodizing recipes available in the literature, we fabricated selfsupporting ordered ion-implantation masks that are several mm2 in area and 1-4 νm thick. SEM micrographs reveal self-organized structures with straight open pores, 25-150 nm in diameter, extending completely through the mask. As reported previously, the pore diameter and spacing depend critically upon the anodization parameters, e.g., type of acid and its molality, the applied voltage and the solution temperature. Ion-milling procedures were developed for opening the bottoms of the anodized pores. These masks appear quite robust during exposure to ion beams of 1-MeV He, Ne, and Kr. The steps necessary to fabricate the implantation masks, including opening the pores, are briefly described. Here we present new results obtained with a mask fabricated with pore dimensions as small as 25 nm in diameter, i.e., at the limit of what is technically feasible. Measurements are reported of the angular dependence of the transmitted ion current; these results are consistent with the physical dimensions of the opened pores. TEM images of a partial array obtained by implantation through the 25-nm pores are also shown.