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Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) is a problematic and economically damaging dicotyledonous weed infesting crops in many regions of the world. Resistance to the auxinic herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba is widespread in Western Australian R. raphanistrum populations, with the resistance mechanism appearing to involve alterations in the physiological response to synthetic auxins and in plant defense. This study aimed to determine whether these alterations cause inhibition in plant growth or reproduction that could potentially be exploited to manage 2,4-D–resistant populations in cropping areas. Therefore, the morphology and seed production of resistant and susceptible populations were compared in an outdoor pot study, with plants grown in the presence and absence of competition by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The susceptible and resistant R. raphanistrum populations were equally suppressed by wheat competition, with plant growth and seed production being decreased by approximately 50%. Although resistant populations produced less vegetative biomass than susceptible populations, there was no negative association between resistance and seed production. Therefore, it is unlikely that any nonherbicidal management practices will be more efficacious on 2,4-D–resistant than 2,4-D–susceptible R. raphanistrum populations.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence referral guidelines prompting urgent two-week referrals were updated in 2015. Additional symptoms with a lower threshold of 3 per cent positive predictive values were integrated. This study aimed to examine whether current pan-London urgent referral guidelines for suspected head and neck cancer lead to efficient and accurate referrals by assessing frequency of presenting symptoms and risk factors, and examining their correlation with positive cancer diagnoses.
The risk factors and symptoms of 984 consecutive patients (over a six-month period in 2016) were collected retrospectively from urgent referral letters to University College London Hospital for suspected head and neck cancer.
Only 37 referrals (3.76 per cent) resulted in a head and neck cancer diagnosis. Four of the 23 recommended symptoms demonstrated statistically significant results. Nine of the 23 symptoms had a positive predictive value of over 3 per cent.
The findings indicate that the current referral guidelines are not effective at detecting patients with cancer. Detection rates have decreased from 10–15 per cent to 3.76 per cent. A review of the current head and neck cancer referral guidelines is recommended, along with further data collection for comparison.
In 2013, a task force was developed to discuss the future of the Canadian pediatric neurology workforce. The consensus was that there was no indication to reduce the number of training positions, but that the issue required continued surveillance. The current study provides a 5-year update on Canadian pediatric neurology workforce data.
Names, practice types, number of weekly outpatient clinics, and dates of certification of all physicians currently practicing pediatric neurology in Canada were obtained. International data were used to compute comparisons between countries. National data sets were used to provide information about the number of residency positions available and the number of Canadian graduates per year. Models for future projections were developed based on published projected population data and trends from the past decade.
The number of pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada has increased 165% since 1994. During this period, wait times have not significantly shortened. There are regional discrepancies in access to child neurologists. The Canadian pediatric neurology workforce available to see outpatient consultations is proportionally less than that of USA. After accounting for retirements and emigrations, the number of child neurologists being added to the workforce each year is 4.9. This will result in an expected 10-year increase in Canadian pediatric neurologists from 151 to 200.
Despite an increase in the number of Canadian child neurologists over the last two decades, we do not predict that there will be problems with underemployment over the next decade.
Declining mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been observed concurrent with a reduced incidence due to effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, with IPD now increasing due to serotype replacement, we undertook a statistical analysis to estimate the trend in all-cause 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) in the North East of England (NEE) following IPD. Clinical, microbiological and demographic data were obtained for all laboratory-confirmed IPD cases (April 2006–March 2016) and the adjusted association between CFR and epidemiological year estimated using logistic regression. Of the 2510 episodes of IPD included in the analysis, 486 died within 30 days of IPD (CFR 19%). Increasing age, male sex, a diagnosis of septicaemia, being in ⩾1 clinical risk groups, alcohol abuse and individual serotypes were independently associated with increased CFR. A significant decline in CFR over time was observed following adjustment for these significant predictors (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.89–0.98; P = 0.003). A small but significant decline in 30-day all-cause CFR following IPD has been observed in the NEE. Nonetheless, certain population groups remain at increased risk of dying following IPD. Despite the introduction of effective vaccines, further strategies to reduce the ongoing burden of mortality from IPD are needed.
Analyzing audiovisual communication is challenging because its content is highly symbolic and less rule-governed than verbal material. But audiovisual messages are important to understand: they amplify, enrich, and complicate the meaning of textual information. We describe a fully-reproducible approach to analyzing video content using minimally—but systematically—trained online workers. By aggregating the work of multiple coders, we achieve reliability, validity, and costs that equal those of traditional, intensively trained research assistants, with much greater speed, transparency, and replicability. We argue that measurement strategies relying on the “wisdom of the crowd” provide unique advantages for researchers analyzing complex and intricate audiovisual political content.
Englerophytum and Synsepalum are two closely related genera of trees and shrubs from the African tropics. Previous molecular studies have shown that these genera collectively form a clade within the subfamily Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae). However, little is known about the inter-relationships of the taxa within the Englerophytum–Synsepalum clade. In this study, nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnH–psbA sequences were used to estimate the phylogeny within the clade. Results indicate that the clade consists of six major lineages, two composed solely of taxa from the genus Englerophytum and four composed of taxa from the genus Synsepalum. Each lineage can be distinguished by suites of vegetative and floral characters. Leaf venation patterns, calyx fusion, style length and staminodal structure were among the most useful characters for distinguishing clades. Some of the subclades within the Englerophytum–Synsepalum clade were also found to closely fit descriptions of former genera, most of which were described by Aubréville, that have since been placed in synonymy with Englerophytum and Synsepalum. The clade with the type species of Englerophytum also contains the type species of the genera Wildemaniodoxa and Zeyherella, which are confirmed as synonyms.
Norovirus is a predominant cause of infectious gastroenteritis in countries worldwide [1–5]. It accounts for approximately 50% of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and >90% of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks [6, 7]. The incubation period ranges between 10 and 48 h and illness duration is generally 1–3 days with self-limiting symptoms; however, this duration is often longer (e.g. 4–6 days) in vulnerable populations such as hospital patients or young children [2, 8]. Symptomatic infection of norovirus presents as acute vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps and nausea, with severe vomiting and diarrhoea (non-bloody) being most common [2, 5, 9].
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of our collaboration is to develop a strong trans-disciplinary team consisting of microfluidics engineers, cancer biologists, and clinicians, to identify a universal marker to detect circulating osteosarcoma cells (COC) using microfluidic devices. Our goals are 3 fold: 1) Identify cell surface markers unique to osteosarcoma (OS) for COC isolation, 2) Develop a Geometrically Enhanced Mixing (GEM) device to isolate COCs, and 3) Evaluate the efficacy of GEM device to detect COCs in patients with OS. The long term goal of this collaboration is to utilize this cell detection approach to evaluate treatment efficacy and correlate the presence of circulating osteosarcoma cells with metastatic incidence. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this phase of our study, we have identified an abundant and conserved cell surface marker across a panel of OS cell lines. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the relative expression of Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), and Ganglioside 2 or/and 3 (GD2/3) on a panel of OS cell lines. An antibody coated GEM microfluidic device is used to affirm the efficacy of GD2/3 to capture COCs. Further capture studies will be conducted using OS cell spiked blood samples. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to determine any significant difference in capture efficiency between EpCAM, GD2/3 cell surface markers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that EpCAM is not a suitable marker for COC detection. Results from our flow cytometry studies demonstrate that GD2/3 expression is significantly higher than EpCAM expression, across all OS cell lines within our panel. The cell capture efficiency strongly correlates with the cell surface expression data obtained from flow cytometry analysis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: OS is the most common primary bone tumor and the third leading cause of pediatric cancer deaths. At diagnosis, 80% of patients will present with metastasis, however only 20% of these cases are clinically detectable. Innovative strategies to identify patients at risk of metastasis would allow for stratification of intervention therapies. Liquid biopsies are a novel alternative to current diagnostic imaging systems to monitor metastatic incidence and treatment efficacy. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) through routine blood sampling has the potential to be used clinically for earlier detection, monitoring the treatment of metastatic cancers and surveying the effect of therapeutic interventions on metastasis. To date, the majority of the studies on CTCs have evaluated their presence in carcinomas. Although sarcomas are rare, they generally have a poorer prognosis. This study will address one of the unmet medical needs in the field of CTC detection; the identification of cell surface OS makers to improve binding specificity, increase purity, and maintain a high capture efficiency.
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
Over 400,000 people live in care home settings in the UK. One way of understanding and improving the quality of care provided is by measuring and understanding the quality of life (QoL) of those living in care homes. This review aimed to identify and examine the psychometric properties including feasibility of use of dementia-specific QoL measures developed or validated for use in care settings.
Instruments were identified using four electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CINAHL) and lateral search techniques. Searches were conducted in January 2017. Studies which reported on the development and/or validation of dementia specific QoL instruments for use in care settings written in English were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Feasibility was assessed using a checklist developed specifically for the review.
Six hundred and sixteen articles were identified in the initial search. After de-duplication, screening and further lateral searches were performed, 25 studies reporting on 9 dementia-specific QoL instruments for use in care home settings were included in the review. Limited evidence was available on the psychometric properties of many instruments identified. Higher-quality instruments were not easily accessible or had low feasibility of use.
Few high-quality instruments of QoL validated for use in care home settings are readily or freely available. This review highlights the need to develop a well-validated measure of QoL for use within care homes that is also feasible and accessible.
There is a role for regulatory oversight over new genetic technologies. Research must ensure the rights of human subjects, and all medical products and techniques should be ensured to be safe and effective. In the United States, these forms of regulation are largely the purview of the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration. Some have argued, however, that human genetic therapies require new regulatory agencies empowered to enforce cultural norms, protect against hypothetical social harms, or ensure that the human genome remains unchanged. Focusing on the United States, this essay will briefly review these arguments and argue that the current limited regulatory role over human gene therapies is sufficient to protect public health, bodily autonomy, and reproductive freedom.
Society is undergoing a shift in gender politics. Science and medicine are part of this conversation, not least as women's representation and pay continue to drop as one progresses through more senior academic and clinical levels. Naming and redressing these inequalities needs to be a priority for us all.
In the first part of this paper we state and prove a theorem concerning the partition (j; l, i) of an integer j into at most l integers , none of which exceed i; l and i being themselves integers, (j; l, i) is thus the number of distinct solutions of the equations
Previous reports investigating adiposity and cognitive function in the population allude to a negative association, although the relationship in older adults is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adiposity (BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR)) with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years). Participants included 5186 adults from the Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture ageing cohort study. Neuropsychological assessment measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Multi-variable linear regression models were used to assess the association between adiposity and cognitive function adjusting for insulin resistance, inflammation and cerebrovascular disease. The mean ages were 80·3 (sd 6·7), 71·0 (sd 7·3) and 70·2 (sd 6·3) years on the cognitive, bone and hypertensive cohorts, respectively. In the cognitive cohort, BMI was positively associated with immediate and delay memory, visuospatial/constructional ability, language and MMSE, and negatively with FAB (log-transformed), whereas WHR was negatively associated with attention. In the bone cohort, BMI was not associated with any cognitive domain, whereas WHR was negatively associated with visuospatial/constructional ability, attention and MMSE. In the hypertensive cohort, BMI was not associated with any cognitive domain, whereas WHR was negatively associated with immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional ability, language and MMSE and positively with FAB (log-transformed). In the cognitive and bone cohorts, the association of WHR and attention disappeared by further controlling for C-reactive protein and HbA1C. In this study of older adults, central adiposity was a stronger predictor of poor cognitive performance than BMI. Older adults could benefit from targeted public health strategies aimed at reducing obesity and obeseogenic risk factors to avoid/prevent/slow cognitive dysfunction.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of our collaboration is to develop a strong transdisciplinary team consisting of microfluidics engineers, cancer biologists, and clinicians, to identify cell surface markers capable of detecting circulating osteosarcoma cells (COC) using microfluidic devices. Our goals are 3-fold: (1) Identify cell surface markers unique to osteosarcoma (OS) for COC isolation, (2) develop a Geometrically Enhanced Mixing (GEM) device to isolate COCs, and (3) Evaluate the efficacy of GEM device to detect COCs in OS patients under treatment. The long-term goal is to utilize this cell detection approach to correlate the presence of COC with metastatic incidence. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To identify a marker to capture COCs we are utilizing flow cytometry and microfluidic capture devices. Flow cytometry will be used to evaluate the relative expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD45, cell surface vimentin (CSV), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2R), interleukin 11 receptor subunit alpha (IL-11Rɑ), ganglioside 2 (GD2), and receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B (RANK) on a panel of OS cell lines. These cell surface markers were selected based on an extensive review of OS cell surface markers. OS cell capture efficacy will be assessed by passaging a known concentration of OS cells through a GEM microfluidic device coated with antibodies targeting the selected marker, as indicated by flow cytometry. Once captured, COCs on the device will be analyzed and the capture efficiency for the indicated marker will be measured. ANOVA will be used to determine any significant difference in capture efficiency between marker types. Once an optimal marker or panel of markers has been selected we will conduct capture studies using OS cell spiked blood samples followed by clinical samples obtained from OS patients. In clinical samples, COC detection will be validated using the FDA approved triple immunocytochemistry technical definition of a circulating tumor cell (CTC). This will enable COCs to be differentiated from the normal whole blood cell population by selecting for CD45−, EpCAM+, and cytokeratin+ cells. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary studies have shown that on our microfluidic device, EpCAM, a marker commonly used to identify circulating tumor cells in other cancer settings, has a poor capture efficiency (15.9%+7.7%) for HU09 OS cells while the same setup with EpCAM has a capture efficiency of 56.9%+2.7% for BXPc-3 pancreatic cells. We therefore anticipate our flow cytometry studies to show a low expression of EpCAM and CD45 for OS cell lines, while showing a moderate to high expression of CSV, IGF2R, IL-11Rɑ, GD2, and RANK. We expect to show a 60%–80% capture efficiency for markers selected for COC capture. Currently, CSV and GD2 are particularly promising as markers based on previously published studies. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: OS is the most common primary bone tumor and the third leading cause of pediatric cancer deaths. At diagnosis 80% of patients will present with metastasis, however only 20% of these cases are clinically detectable. Innovative strategies to identify patients at risk of metastasis would allow for stratification of intervention therapies. Currently, tumor recurrence and metastasis are primarily dependent on diagnostic-imaging modalities such as computerized tomography or positron emission tomography scans. Unfortunately, these imaging modalities can only detect tumor masses of significant size (106 tumor cells). Liquid biopsies are a novel alternative to current diagnostic imaging systems to monitor metastatic incidence and treatment efficacy. The detection of CTCs through routine blood sampling has the potential to be used clinically for earlier detection, monitoring the treatment of metastatic cancers and surveying the effect of therapeutic interventions on metastasis. To date, the majority of the studies on CTCs have evaluated their presence in carcinomas. Although sarcomas are rare, they generally have a poor prognosis. This study will address one of the unmet medical needs in the field of CTC detection; the identification of cell surface OS makers to improve binding specificity, increase purity, and maintain a high capture efficiency. This phase of our proposal will evaluate the most abundant and conserved markers across a panel of OS cell lines. Once a marker or panel of markers is selected, we will begin to develop a microfluidic device that can be used clinically to detect CTCs in this disease setting.