Improper nutrition is an important risk factor for many chronic diseases. The presented study is a part of the Polish population representative epidemiological studies on the diet and nutritional status, the identification of food-related diseases risk factors, the physical activity level, nutritional knowledge level, and health inequities, implemented under The National Health Program 2016–2020, financed by the Ministry of Health.
The speech will present selected preliminary study results of 1,471 respondents (709 aged 19–64 (A); 762 aged 65 + (B) carried on since December 2018 to December 2018 from planed representative Polish population (each groups: 2000 respondents). Presented data was collected on the basis of nutrition assessment (food frequency questionnaire (KomPAN), 24 hours recall - 2 days - interval of at least 3 days), identification of diet-related diseases risk factors (body weight, body height, waist and hips circumferences estimation, 2 blood pressure measurements), physical activity (the accelerometer, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and the nutritional knowledge level (KomPAN). Statistical analyses: SPSS program (version 25.0), data on diet composition assessed in DIET 5.0.
Excessive body mass occurred in 63.9% respondents (A: 51.3%, B: 72.3%), obesity - in 16.7% A and 35.3% B participants. The average diet energy value was: A- 2035 kcal (2452 in men, 1745 in women), B - 1933 kcal (2283 in men, 1705 in women). The percentage of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate was similar in both groups: around 14%, 34% and 50% respectively.
Good nutritional knowledge was found in 39.5% individuals from group A and 42.8% from group B, the average knowledge level was diagnosed in 57% and 53.8% respondents respectively. Knowledge about proper nutrition did not mean proper nutritional choices. Vegetables were eaten a few times per day only by 36.8% A and 30.4% B respondents with good nutritional knowledge, milk and cottage cheese consumption declared 8% subjects from each group and fermented dairy products 11% A and 13% B participants.
It is worth pointing out that 50% respondents with good nutritional knowledge ate fish less than once a month. Preliminary analysis shown that the prevalence of excessive body mass in Poland is very high, the high number of obese people aged over 65 is especially disturbing.
The detailed analysis of nutritional status, data on physical activity and the occurrence of diet-related diseases among the subjects, planned to be presented during conference, will give the possibility for creation of effective preventive action, which improve the public health in Poland.