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NEOs come close to the Earth's orbit so that any dust ejected from them, might be seen as a meteor shower. Orbits evolve rapidly, so that a similarity of orbits at one given time is not sufficient to prove a relationship, orbital evolution over a long time interval also has to be similar. Sporadic meteoroids can not be associated with a single parent body, they can only be classified as cometary or asteroidal. However, by considering one parameter criteria, many sporadics are not classified properly therefore two parameter approach was proposed.
As in the past, the primary activity of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements has been to prepare and publish a triennial (“2009”) report containing current recommendations for models for Solar System bodies (Archinal et al. (2011a)). The authors are B. A. Archinal, M. F. A'Hearn, E. Bowell, A. Conrad, G. J. Consolmagno, R. Courtin, T. Fukushima, D. Hestroffer, J. L. Hilton, G. A. Krasinsky, G. Neumann, J. Oberst, P. K. Seidelmann, P. Stooke, D. J. Tholen, P. C. Thomas, and I. P. Williams. An erratum to the “2006” and “2009” reports has also been published (Archinal et al. (2011b)). Below we briefly summarize the contents of the 2009 report, a plan to consider requests for new recommendations more often than every three years, three general recommendations by the WG to the planetary community, other WG activities, and plans for our next report.
The business meeting of commission 22 was held at the room 5 in the SulAmerica Convention Center in Rio de Janeiro(14:00-15:30). Fifteen people attended at this meeting:J.Borovička, E.Bowell, G.Consolmagno, D.Green, P. Jenniskens, A. Pellinen-Wannberg, R. Rudawska, J. Watanabe, J. Zhu, P. H. A. Hasselmann, F. Ostroviski, D. A. Oszkiewicz, W. Thuillot, P. Mahajani, and A. Sule. This meeting was managed by Junichi Watanabe, the current C22 Vice-President. The summary of the meeting is described.
The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.
Commission 22 is part of Division III on Planetary System Sciences of the International Astronomical Union. Members of Commission 22 are professional scientists studying bodies in the Solar System smaller than asteroids and comets, and their interactions with planets. The main subjects of interest are meteors, meteoroids, meteoroid streams, interplanetary dust particles, and also zodiacal cloud, meteor trains, meteorites, tektites, etc.
A total of 701 comets received names between July 2005 and June 2008. Comets observed only from the SOHO and STEREO missions, as well as further comets recognized from the long-defunct SOLWIND satellite, accounted for 520 of these names.
The meeting was attended by six from the WG (K. Aksnes, J. Blunck, G. Consolmagno, B. Marsden, R. Schulz, V. Shevchenko) and two from the Task Groups (D. Morrison, J. Watanabe). Also the incoming WG members E. Bowell and R. Courtin, as well as some guests, attended.
Following the report of the ‘task force’, the UK Government decided to accept some of it's recommendations. In particular, it accepted two that recommended the setting up of a British National Centre for Near Earth Objects. The final outcome was the setting up of a Near Earth Object Information Centre to inform the general public of the dangers or otherwise from impact on the Earth of Near Earth Objects. The Centre has now been running for several years and in this publication we examine the current workings of the Centre and discuss some of its successes and failures.
The existence of an observed meteor shower associated with some Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) is one of the few useful criteria that can be used to indicate that such an object could be a candidate for being regarded as an extinct or dormant cometary nucleus. In order to identify possible new NEA-meteor showers associations, the secular variations of the orbital elements of the NEA 2000 PG3, with comet-like albedo (0.02), and moving on a comet-like orbit, was investigated under the gravitational action of the Sun and six planets (Mercury to Saturn) over one cycle of variation of the argument of perihelion. The theoretical geocentric radiants and velocities of four possible meteor showers associated with this object are determined. Using published data, the theoretically predicted showers were identified with the night-time September Northern and Southern δ-Piscids fireball showers and several fireballs, and with the day-time meteor associations γ-Arietids and α-Piscids. The character of the orbit and low albedo of 2000 PG3, and the existence of observed meteor showers associated with 2000 PG3 provide evidence supporting the conjecture that this object may be of cometary nature.
The Working Group was formed at the request of the Board of DivisionIII and approved by the IAU Executive committee in March 2004. This was in recognition of the fact that discoveries in the Trans Neptunian region were repeatedly raising the question of “what is a planet”. The task of the WG was to investigate the options available and give indications of the level of support and opposition for each if more than one option was emerging.
Because the division consists of many very active commissions, most activities are included in the reports of the individual commissions. This report highlights a small subset of the major achievements that are covered in detail in the reports by the commissions. Some administrative activities of the division and reports of the divisional working groups and committees are also included as subsequent sections of this divisional report.
The Quadrantid stream covers a region of space which contains many strong resonances and commensurabilities with the Jovian orbit. We have numerically integrated the orbital evolution of over one hundred actual meteoroids backwards to BC 5000. The evolution is quit complex, but most of the meteoroids are quite well behaved with rapid but smooth changes in the orbital elements. One meteoroid however shows sharp sudden changes in its orbital parameters and these changes are generally indicative of the presence of chaos.
It is now well known that object 1983 TB, discovered by IRAS, has an orbit very similar to that of the Geminid meteor stream. Calculations show that this orbit crossed over the orbit of Venus about 500 years ago. We will describe calculations tracing the history of both the object and the stream through this interaction with Venus and the present interaction with the Earth.
In addition to planetary perturbations, the small particles which make up a meteor stream are subject to outward radiation pressure and the Poynting-Robertson effect. New particles can also be generated in a stream through being released from the nucleus of a comet. We summarise the main physical effects, discuss models for meteor stream evolution and give a brief account of the observational data available.
At the present time the orbit of the Quadrantid meteor stream not only intersects the orbit of Earth but also passes very close to the orbit of the planet Jupiter. This causes considerable perturbations. In a series of three papers (1,2,3) the authors replaced the myriad of meteoroids in the stream by ten test particles set at equal intervals of eccentric anomaly around the orbit. The equations of motion of these particles in the solar system were solved using a standard fourth order Runge–Kutta technique with self–adjusting step lengths. The orbits of the test particles were output at ten year intervals going back from the present to the year 300 B.C. and forward into the future to the year A.D. 3780.
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