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Solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission was measured by BDRG instrument, the part of set of instruments operated on board the Russian satellite Lomonosov from April 2016 until now (solar-synchronous orbit with altitude 490 km, inclination of 97.6 degrees). Lomonosov measurements (11 flares with the X-ray energy more than 10 keV, and more than half of them have class in soft X-rays less than C2) were compared to the data obtained by RHESSI and Fermi space observatories as well as the Nobeyama Radioheliograph operating at the same time. The quasi-periodicity with different periods were found in some of them.
Molecular epidemiological studies confirm a substantial contribution of individual genes to variability in susceptibility to disease and death for humans. To evaluate the contribution of all genes to susceptibility and to estimate individual survival characteristics, survival data on related individuals (eg twins or other relatives) are needed. Correlated gamma-frailty models of bivariate survival are used in a joint analysis of survival data on more than 31 000 pairs of Danish, Swedish and Finnish male and female twins using the maximum likelihood method. Additive decomposition of frailty into genetic and environmental components is used to estimate heritability in frailty. The estimate of the standard deviation of frailty from the pooled data is about 1.5. The hypothesis that variance in frailty and correlations of frailty for twins are similar in the data from all three countries is accepted. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability in frailty is about 0.5. The age trajectories of individual hazards are evaluated for all three populations of twins and both sexes. The results of our analysis confirm the presence of genetic infiuences on individual frailty and longevity. They also suggest that the mechanism of these genetic infiuences may be similar for the three Scandinavian countries. Furthermore, results indicate that the increase in individual hazard with age is more rapid than predicted by traditional demographic life tables.
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