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Objectives: The increase in carbapenemase-producing organism (CPO) transmission among hospitalized patients is a growing concern. Studies investigating the transmission of CPO to epidemiologically linked contacts are scarce. We conducted an interim subgroup analysis of the ongoing multicenter household transmission of CPO in Singapore (CaPES-C) study to identify the acquisition rate of CPO among epidemiologically linked contacts of hospitalized CPO patients. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted between January and December 2021. We recruited CPO-positive patients and their epidemiologically linked contacts. Stool samples were collected from the patients at baseline, day 3, day 7, and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48. Additionally, a sample was collected at the time of discharge from the hospital. Xpert Carba-R test was used to detect CPO genotypes in the stool samples. In this interim analysis, we calculated the acquisition rate of CPO among the epidemiologically linked hospital contacts of CPO positive patients using Stata version 15 software. Results: We recruited 22 (56.4%) CPO-positive index patients [blaNDM, n = 7 (31.8%); blaIMP, n = 3 (13.6%); blaOXA-48, n = 10 (45.5%), others, n = 2 (9.1%)] and 14 (35.9%) epidemiologically linked hospital contacts. The median age of CPO-positive patients was 72.5 years (IQR, 62–82) and 15 (68.2%) were female. The median age for the epidemiologically linked contacts was 82.5 years (IQR, 70–85) and 4 (28.6%) were female. After 1,082 patient days, 2 (14.3%) epidemiologically linked contacts tested positive for CPO giving an acquisition rate of 1.85 per 1,000 patient days (95% CI, 0.46 – 7.39). One of these participants acquired a concordant genotype (blaOXA-48) at day 7 and the other acquired a discordant genotype (CPO positive index, blaIMP; epidemiologically linked contact, blaNDM) at week 12 of follow-up. Conclusions: This small interim analysis revealed a high conversion rate among epidemiologically linked hospital contacts. A larger study is needed to understand the influence of genotypes, hospital environment, and human behavior on the transmission of CPO in hospitals.
Objectives: Ancillary staff members perform operational support functions and play an active role in enhancing the patient care experience. Infection prevention practices among ancillary staff play a critical role in preventing transmission of microorganisms, which ensures the safety of patients. Low hand hygiene compliance was found among porters in a cross-institutional hand hygiene audit in 2021. A quality improvement team was formed to improve hand hygiene compliance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A focus-group discussion and survey were conducted to understand hand hygiene knowledge and challenges among porters. Using the findings, the team initiated Glo–germ education tools, pocket alcohol hand-rub agents, pocket moisturizer, poster display, and a toolbox messaging system via conversion of group roll call to satellite-area roll call. Respective satellite teams were sent hand hygiene reminders, and prompt corrective action was taken following noncompliance events. Analytic comparisons of pre- and postsurvey data were performed using the χ2 test, and P < .05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: In total, 572 ancillary staff participated in the survey. Knowledge of hand hygiene practices improved significantly following the interventions, as shown in the comparison of pre- and postintervention results: knowledge of the hand hygiene steps (P < .001), knowledge of the duration of hand rub (P < .001), and knowledge of duration of handwashing (P < .001). Also, 295 staff members (97.68%) stated that implementation measures increased their awareness of the importance of hand hygiene. Moreover, the hand hygiene compliance rate improved from 77.8% to 100%. There were no significant differences related to sex (P = .089), age group (P = .355), years of working (P = .359), education level (P = .268), or difficulty in reading English (P = .906). Conclusions: Evaluating staff hand hygiene knowledge and understanding the challenges faced among porters helped toward the development of appropriate interventions and assurance of success in project.
Objectives:Streptococcus mitis is a gram-positive coccus and is a common commensal found in the throat, nasopharynx, and mouth. In an immunocompromised host, S. mitis opportunistically multiplies and can translocate to other sites. At baseline, the prevalence of S. mitis remained stable among hematological patients, averaging ~1 case monthly. However, in August–September 2020, 5 S. mitis cases were documented in a hematology ward and included overlapping inpatient stays. In this descriptive cluster report, we sought to identify the reasons for the increased prevalence of S. mitis in our institution. Methods: A literature review was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the bacteriology of S. mitis. Subsequently, geographical mapping was performed to identify epidemiological links. Further culture and sensitivity testing was requested. Hand hygiene compliance, environmental audit, and handling of central lines within the ward were examined for any lapses in practice. Results: Based on geographical mapping, no epidemiological linkages were established between patients; they were admitted to different rooms and did not share any equipment. Moreover, based on the antibiogram, different bacteria sensitivities were recorded across the isolates from these patients. A hand hygiene and environmental audit result showed 100% compliance. Nurses performed care of central lines in accordance with guidelines. However, an investigation of changes in practice revealed that the use of a toothbrush had only recently been permitted as part of streamlining oral care for hematology patients. Because toothbrushes were not provided by the hospital, patients were utilizing their personal toothbrushes with no direct supervision of their oral care regimen. Conclusions: The prevalence of S. mitis in hematological patients was likely due to the neutropenic condition of patients. This report provides valuable information supporting the optimization of oral hygiene in immunocompromised patients while minimizing the risk of opportunistic infections.
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