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The impact of prenatal cannabinoid exposure on brain development and interest in understanding its interference with normal adult neurological function has fostered the characterization of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) during nervous system development. Multiple lines of evidences show that the ECS regulates the functionality of neural progenitor cell populations during development and in adult neurogenic areas. CB1 receptors allow crosstalk with growth factor and neurotrophin signaling at different levels. The glutamatergic neuronal dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that malfunction of the developmental role of CB1 receptors in pyramidal neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychoses or schizophrenia symptoms. Recent findings have demonstrated that endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors are crucial regulators of neurogenic processes including neural progenitor cell proliferation and survival, neuronal specification, migration, synapse establishment and the correct connectivity of newly formed cells. The ECS may be considered as a novel regulatory signaling system of neurogenesis and nervous system maturation.