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Among nursing home outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ≥3 breakthrough infections when the predominant severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant circulating was the SARS-CoV-2 δ (delta) variant, fully vaccinated residents were 28% less likely to be infected than were unvaccinated residents. Once infected, they had approximately half the risk for all-cause hospitalization and all-cause death compared with unvaccinated infected residents.
One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.
Background: The inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine at long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Nebraska began on December 28, 2020, as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program.1 As of February 5, 2021, 159 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) had completed their first vaccine clinic, and 7,271 residents and 6,768 staff had received the first dose of the 2-dose series. Surveillance data before vaccination (December 21–27, 2020) and after the first vaccination dose (January 25–31, 2021) indicate that the weekly SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate at SNFs decreased from 1.18% to 0.42% for residents and 0.54% to 0.11% for staff.2,3,4 In this study, we examined the perceived decrease in new transmission initiated by the first dose of vaccine at SNFs. Methods: We analyzed the data with separate logistic regressions for residents and staff. We included 145 SNFs that completed their first vaccine clinic, and we used the Federal and Pharmacy Partnership database for the number of residents and staff that received the first dose of vaccine at the first vaccine clinic. We followed the SNFs for 21 days after the first vaccine clinic from December 28, 2020, through February 5, 2021, for any first-time SARS-CoV-2–positive cases. The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) database was used to collect the information on the number of residents present at the facility on the day of the first vaccine clinic, if available, or days before in the same week as the first vaccine clinic. The staff count for each facility was extracted from Nebraska Licensure for LTCFs. We collected new case information from the state surveillance, the NHSN, and the Test-Nebraska platform. Results: The mean resident vaccine coverage was 80% and the median staff vaccine coverage was 43%. We found a reverse association between staff vaccine coverage and new positive staff cases. For each percentage increase in staff vaccine coverage, the odds of having a new staff positive case 7 days and 14 days after the first vaccine clinic decrease by 26% and 48%, respectively. No association between coverage and new resident transmission was detected. Possible confounding exists when infected residents might have tested positive 7–14 days after the first vaccine clinic who were not affected by the vaccine. Conclusions: Although we observed the association between lower case count with increased facility-level vaccine coverage, we would need to wait for the administration of the second dose of vaccine before assessing the level of association between coverage and new transmission. Further initiatives are warranted to increase the suboptimal vaccine coverage for staff.
Background: In April 2019, Nebraska Public Health Laboratory identified an NDM-producing Enterobacter cloacae from a urine sample from a rehabilitation inpatient who had recently received care in a specialized unit (unit A) of an acute-care hospital (ACH-A). After additional infections occurred at ACH-A, we conducted a public health investigation to contain spread. Methods: A case was defined as isolation of NDM-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from a patient with history of admission to ACH-A in 2019. We conducted clinical culture surveillance, and we offered colonization screening for carbapenemase-producing organisms to all patients admitted to unit A since February 2019. We assessed healthcare facility infection control practices in ACH-A and epidemiologically linked facilities by visits from the ICAP (Infection Control Assessment and Promotion) Program. The recent medical histories of case patients were reviewed. Isolates were evaluated by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Through June 2019, 7 cases were identified from 6 case patients: 4 from clinical cultures and 3 from 258 colonization screens including 1 prior unit A patient detected as an outpatient (Fig. 1). Organisms isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 5), E. cloacae (n = 1), and Citrobacter freundii (n = 1); 1 patient had both NDM-producing K. pneumoniae and C. freundii. Also, 5 case patients had overlapping stays in unit A during February–May 2019 (Fig. 2); common exposures in unit A included rooms in close proximity, inhabiting the same room at different times and shared caregivers. One case-patient was not admitted to unit A but shared caregivers, equipment, and devices (including a colonoscope) with other case patients while admitted to other ACH-A units. No case patients reported travel outside the United States. Screening at epidemiologically linked facilities and clinical culture surveillance showed no evidence of transmission beyond ACH-A. Infection control assessments at ACH-A revealed deficiencies in hand hygiene, contact precautions adherence, and incomplete cleaning of shared equipment within and used to transport to/from a treatment room in unit A. Following implementation of recommended infection control interventions, no further cases were identified. Finally, 5 K. pneumoniae of ST-273 were related by WGS including carriage of NDM-5 and IncX3 plasmid supporting transmission of this strain. Further analysis is required to relate IncX3 plasmid carriage and potential transmission to other organisms and sequence types identified in this study. Conclusions: We identified a multiorganism outbreak of NDM-5–producing CRE in an ACH specialty care unit. Transmission was controlled through improved infection control practices and extensive colonization screening to identify asymptomatic case-patients. Multiple species with NDM-5 were identified, highlighting the potential role of genotype-based surveillance.
Disclosures: Muhammad Salman Ashraf reports that he is the principal investigator for a study funded by an investigator-initiated research grant.
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